Essay about depression

Submitted By joanna70
Words: 3618
Pages: 15

Depression can be referred to a range of health problems that stem from the absence of positive effects such as loss of interest and enjoyment of everyday activities (NICE, 2010). It is mostly characterized by changes in mood, behavior or cognitive impairment. People suffering from depression may be categorized as either severe, which is clinically significant degree major depression and normal day to day of low moods normally known as minor depression. This assignment seeks to explore depression condition from a biopsychosocial perspective, based on a case study of a 54 years old male called James. It is estimated that 70 of the general population maybe suffering from depression at any given period of time. According to World Health Organization, 121 million people suffered from depression in 2004. Furthermore, specialists from Bethesda Public Health Institute predict that the second cause of global suffering in 2020 will be depression (WHO, 2004). Depression impacts individuals well-being and normal functioning. It affects their ability to work, manage social life and relationships within family (Nydagger, 2008). For the above mentioned reasons Allied Health Care professionals aim to detect and diagnose depression before it extends its impact on the already increased use of social services, absence from work, and health care cost on NHS. The rate of the depression seems to be increasing generation after generation and it takes over one million lives every year. Depression is recognized as a public Health problem, especially late life depression (Tiemeier, 2003). The most vulnerable are older adults, which very often go undiagnosed and untreated for reasons that symptoms displayed by them are presumed for signs of aging. There are two main worldwide diagnostic criteria often used for assessing depression. The World Health Organization uses the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problem (ICD-10) tool and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) by American Psychiatric Association (APA). On the generic bases, the onset of depression is determined by genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. Some of the major presentation of depression includes emotional, motivational behavioral, cognitive or somatic symptoms, such as tearfulness, irritability, social withdrawal, sadness, little pleasure, feeling fatigue. At certain times also anxiety, anger and agitation. However not every individual will present the same symptoms (Haddad Gunn 2011). Depending on the severity of the illness, it can either be diagnosed as major depressive episode or Dysthymic disorder. According to the DSMIV, a major depression episode can disable an individual from two weeks to six months. It can be described as single episode, catatonic, recurrent, seasonal, postpartum and loss of interest in pleasurable events. People with recurrent depression may experience it several times in their life and can immobilize the individual (Haddad and Gunn, 2011). On the other hand, dysthymic depression disorder presents fewer of the symptoms of depression. It may last for about two years but can also lead to major depression. Some individuals may also experience a minor depression which may last for two weeks or more. It can also lead to major depression if not treated. On the other hand, an individual may have some form of distorted brain function in addition to depression. This may be deemed as psychotic. Normally it is characterized with delusions and hallucinations (Parker et al., 1997). When directly linked to the case study, James was diagnosed with moderate depression. James lived alone. He used to visit his sister and attend pub quiz which is the only social life he has after losing job. After redundancy James might have accumulated a level of loneliness. Research has shown that, people who are alone or who experience different kind of loss, maybe be prone to depression (Bowlby, 1980). There are studies to