Important that researcher is aware of his/her own beliefs so they do not affect the interpretation of behavior
Researcher must reflect on his/her own beliefs and attempt to separate them if they are not to affect the data
Personal reflexivity - values, beliefs, experiences, political faction, socioeconomic class, personal interest in the results can influence the research both professionally and personally
Epistemological reflexivity - related to how data was gathered, limited understanding of a particular group of people can restrict the amount of data gathered
Discuss ethical considerations involved before, during and after an interview.
Before the interview: relevant sampling methods should be considered, mostly because small samples are usually used. Normally, either probability or non-probability sampling. the first one tends to be have a rigorous approach. sampling procedures generally used: purposive, convenience and snowball sampling. informed consent: the participants need to agree and be informed on their participation in the interview, as it is their right to know. protecting participants from harm: even in an interview, participants should leave the interview in the same conditions as the ones they entered.
During the interview:
Observation: many times, it is not only important what the interviewed says, but how he said it and how he acts during the interview, reason why the interviewer should pay attention at what he hears and sees (non-verbal signs).
Research bias: Researcher not paying enough attention to the participants so that its own beliefs determine research process.
Participant expectations: participants ideas of the research and the researcher which could affect trustworthiness of data.
Rapport: trusting and open relationship, so answers are less bias
Widrawal from study: The participant has the right to widrawal from the study, as well as its information at any point of the interview, even when it is finished.
After the interview:
Reflexivity: assumption that its important the researcher is aware of his own contributions to the construction of meaning in the research process.
Anonymity and confidentiality: participants have the right to give information knowing that it is confidential, just their information (without relating it to the participant) is going to be used.
Reading and rereading the transcript in order to become familiar with the participants account
Structuring emergent themes: list all the emerging themes and see if they relate to each other in order to get to a more reliable conclusion about the participant.
Evaluate participant, non-participant, naturalistic, overt, and covert observations participant observation- the observer takes part in the situation being studied while doing the research non-participant observation- the observer is not part of the situation being studied naturalistic observation Observation happens in the natural environment
Overt observation: participant knows he/she is being observed
Covert observation participants do not know they are being studied
Discuss considerations involved in setting up and carrying out an observation (for example, audience effect, Hawthorne effect, disclosure)
Participant Observation – the observer takes part in the situation being studied while doing the research – becomes part of the group (religious group, street gang, etc.)
- Provides detailed and in-depth knowledge that cannot be gained by other methods
- Avoids researcher bias by trying to understand how and why the social processes are the way they are, instead of imposing their own reality on them
- Provides a holistic interpretation of a topic, taking into account as many aspects as possible
- Difficult to record data promptly and objectively
- Time consuming and demanding – researcher needs to be physically present in the lives of the people being studied