Desalination: Water and Wastewater Reuse Essay

Submitted By kwanhernandez
Words: 849
Pages: 4

1.0 Introduction Water is the fundamental element of human being. Acquire enough water is the prerequisite to develop agriculture, industry and commercial for a country. However, not all the country can obtain enough water for its citizen especially clear water. It is always a challenge for the developed countries. In Egypt, the precipitation is less than 80 millimeters per year in most areas. The rain is mainly falls along the coast only. In the wettest area of Egypt, the precipitation per year is only around 200 millimeters. The imbalance of precipitation induces so many places in Egypt to become a desert area (Touregypt, 2011). Egypt is in the dry arid region. Only the northern region can enjoys a wetter Mediterranean climate. Summer is hot and dry and winter is moderate with little rain which increases on the coast (Ministry of Petroleum, 2010). In Egypt, the renewable water resource is 57.3 cubic kilometers (CIA, 2011). The Government has indicated its intent to shift emphasis from its role as the central actor in developing and managing water supply systems, towards promoting participatory approaches in which water users will play an active role in the management of irrigation systems and cost sharing. Important institutional and legislative measures have been taken recently to promote the establishment of sustainable participatory irrigation management associations. However, despite these measures, the development of water users’ associations as effective partners in irrigation management remains at an early stage. In the new lands, the concept of participatory irrigation management is not yet effectively operational for a variety of economic, financial, and institutional reasons (Encyclopedia of Earth, 2010). Desalination is a feasible method for Egypt to obtain clean water. However, this method requires energy to force the water through the filters. It will cost a negative effect to the environment and the cost is also a burden for the country. The other method is wastewater reuse. It means using wastewater or reclaimed water from one application for another application (McKenzie, 2005). It may be a more cheap and environmental-friendly method for Egypt to obtain water resource. This report will make comparison between desalination and wastewater reuse. Evaluate each feasibility for Egypt.

2.0 Background Egypt is located in the north-eastern corner of Africa and south-western Asia, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan. The total area of the Arab Republic of Egypt reaches nearly 1.002.000 m², however, the populated area reaches 55367 km² representing 5.5% of the total area (Ministry of Petroleum, 2010). In 2012, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is $256.7 billion US dollars and GDP per capita is $6,700 US dollars which ranked 143 in the world (CIA, 2013). Obviously, Egypt is not a rich country. Despite the relatively high levels of economic growth in recent years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remained poor and contributed to public discontent. After unrest erupted in January 2011, the Egyptian Government backtracked on economic reforms, drastically increasing social spending to address public dissatisfaction, but political uncertainty at the same time caused economic growth to slow significantly, reducing the government's revenues (ibid). Egypt experiences increasing water scarcity and a rapidly growing population. With virtually no rainfall, the