DESC- CHAPTER 2,3,4,5,6
Gathers data, processes data into information, outputs data and information and stores data and information.
Data: fact, figure or idea. Ex: the names Zoe and Richardson, the number 7784947
Information: data that has been organized in a meaningful fashion. Ex: Zoe Richardson can be reached by phone at 7784947. Info suddenly becomes useful.
Binary language: consists of two digits: 0 and 1. Each one is a called a bit. 8 bits = 1 byte (one character of data).
Hardware: any part of the computer you could physically touch.
Application software: set of programs. (Word, PowerPoint, etc.)
System software: operating system (OS)
Netbook < notebook computer. Tablet PC is similar to a notebook but features a touch sensitive screen that can swivel and fold flat. Desktop computer is stationary and used at a single location. Peripheral device = monitor, keyboard, etc.
Input devices: keyboard, microphones, scanners, digital camera, etc. Stylus = looks like a pen but has no ink.
Keyboard: use “F” keys for different computer functions. “CTRL” key used for shortcuts and other special tasks.
Mouse functions: magnifier, customizable buttons, web search and file storage.
Output devices: enables you to send processed data out of your computer in the form of text, pictures, sounds or video. Ex: monitor, printer, speaker and earphones.
Types of monitors: LCD (flat-panel monitor) is light and energy efficient. Some use LED technology (light-emitting diode) which is even more energy efficient and may have better color accuracy and thinner panels. LCD monitors have replaced CRT monitors (catherode ray tube). These are very hard to find because they have become legacy technology.
How monitors function: they are made up of millions of tiny dots, which are each called a pixel. Each pixel is comprised of three subpixels of red, blue, and green. Some new models include yellow.
Aspect ratio: width-to-height proportion of a monitor. Ex: 4:3
Screen resolution: (clearness or sharpness of the image) reflects the number of pixels on the screen.
Contrast ratio: measure of the difference in light intensity between white and the darkest black that the monitor can produce.
Viewing angle: measured in degrees, tells how far you can move to the side of the monitor before the image quality degrades.
Brightness: measured in nits, measure of the greatest amount of light showing when the monitor is displaying pure white.
Response time: measured in milliseconds, time it takes for a pixel to change color.
Printers: Inkjet and laser printers are both considered nonimpact printer. This printer sprays ink or uses laser beams to transfer marks onto the paper. These have replaced impact printers entirely. An impact printer has tiny hammerlike keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, making marks on the paper.
Advantages of an inkjet printer: affordable and produce high-quality color printouts quickly and quietly.
Advantages of a laser printer: faster printing speed and produce higher-quality printouts.
Plotter: another type of printer that produces oversize pictures that require the drawing of maps, detailed images and architectural plans.
Sound output: surround-sound speaker: envelops the listener in a full 360-degree field of sound.
Processing and Memory on the Motherboard: the motherboard is the main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer including the computer’s processor (brain), its memory and the main circuit boards. On a desktop, the motherboard is located inside the system unit.
Network interface card: enables your computer to connect with other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate high-speed internet connection.
Memory: RAM (random access memory) is the place in a computer where the programs and data the computer is currently using are stored. It’s a temporary or volatile storage location. The motherboard also contains ROM (read-only memory), where