Martin & Halverson, based on Bem.
Agreed with Kohlberg’s cognitive development theory that child’s thinking is the basis of their development of gender role behaviours.
BUT – thought the process started much earlier. Says children gain gender identity between the ages of 2 and 3 when they work out if they are a boy or a girl. Their schema is now very simple, consisting of 2 groups, their own is the in group and the opposite sex, the out group.
Then, they actively seek information about the appropriate behaviours and actions of their own group. Boys pay close attention to boy related toys and activities and vice versa. Children therefore look to their environment to develop and build their gender schemas which become progressively more complex
Campbell – visual preference technique. 3 month babies showed minor preferences of watching babies who were the same sex, this was more noticeable in males. By 9 and 18 months it was much more distinct. Girls likes to look at male activities too but it was stronger with the boys.
Supports idea that babies develop schemas for gender long before they start to speak and that these schemas drive their attention.
Poulin-Dubois – choose doll to carry out tasks, male, female and neutral. Girl’s age 24 months chose the gender appropriate doll for the tasks but the boys didn’t, implying that girls as young as 2 had identified gender stereotypes. Boys did same at 31 months. Shows that young children between 2 and 3 select and pay attention to models on the basis of their sex
Kohlberg – Childs understanding of own gender forms basis of