Macromolecules are large molecules made up of smaller organic molecules. These four classes are Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids. These macromolecules are created by removing water. Carbohydrates are made up of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. Each macromolecule is made up of smaller organic molecules. For carbohydrates and proteins these smaller molecules are known as monomers. These similar or identical monomers are covalently bonded together to create a large polymer molecule. The monomer unit for carbohydrates is a monosaccharide or a simple sugar. When two of these monosaccharides are linked by covalent bonds a disaccharide is created. When several monosaccharides are bonded together a polysaccharide, or complex sugar, is created. Polysaccharides are the polymers of carbohydrates. Proteins are made up of monomers called amino acids. Lipids are made up of hydrogen and carbon. Lipids are forms when glycerol molecules combine with fatty acids. They are divided into three categories: fats oils and waxes. Proteins are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. The body's primary building block for muscle, bone, skin, hair, and many other tissues is protein. Over 10,000 different proteins are found and needed in the body for maintaining life. Proteins play many important roles in the body including the structure of enzymes. Protein consists of building blocks called amino acids, which are linked together in different patterns to form specific proteins with different characteristics. I will be testing for the presence of Monosaccharides and Disaccharides in water, a piece of potato and a small piece of onion by adding Benedict’s reagent. Test out the presence of starch when mixing with iodine. Detect the presence of amino acids and the color it produces when present . Chemical detection of protein and the way it affects color change, and lastly detection of lipids by using the Sudan- Black test.
II Introduction: Objectives.
1. Chemical Detection of Monosaccharides and Disaccharides.
2. Chemical Detection of Starch.
3. Chemical Detection of amino Acids
4. Chemical Detection of Protein
5. Chemical Detection of Lipids
1. Small piece of potato. Mortar with Pestle.
Water Small piece of onion
Wax pencil Three test tubes
Benedicts reagent Beaker
Electric hot plate
2. Small piece of onion One slide
Microscope Water iodine
3. Filter paper Water
Protein Amino acid
Ninhydrin reagent Incubator
4. Biuret reagent Three test tubes
Distilled water Protein
5. Test tube Water
Oil Bile salts
Slip Brown paper Methods: 1.
• Macerate a small piece of potato in a mortar with pestle. Use only enough water to form a thick juice. Repeat with a clean mortar and pestle, but this time use a small piece of onion.
• Using a wax pencil, label three test tubes #1, #2 and #3. Place a mark on each at 1cm. from the bottom; place another mark at 3cm. from the bottom.
• To tube #1 add water to the 1 cm. mark and Benedict’s reagent to the 3cm. mark.
• To the second tube add potato juice to the first mark and Benedict’s regent to the second mark.
• To the third tube add onion juice to the first mark and Benedict’s regent to the second mark.
• Place all three tubes in a beaker of boiling