0-3 yrs Babies grow in size and develop teeth/hair. The immune system becomes stronger with age. A baby’s digestive system can’t absorb any foods except milk. A baby can grip and hold things (Fine motor skills). A baby can control movement of large muscles (gross motor skills). Babies are born with a number of physical reflexes that are automatic and uncontrollable. Babies explore and learn using their senses, they learn about texture by feeling, colour by looking. At the end of this life stage a child develops object permanence; this means that they know that if an object goes out of sight that it still exists. Babies also learn how to crawl, walk talk and express whenever they want something. A baby has natural affection for its mother. At around six months babies smile, laugh and enjoy contact with others who are happy. Babies can also recognise emotional expressions for anger, happiness and concern in others. A child must develop a bond (attachment) with their carer; this will become a base to explore other relationships. A baby’s family is its main source of social interaction. At 2 months old babies can smile at human faces and recognise their mothers face. This first relationship is known as a bond or attachment.
The baby becomes upset when parted from the main carer.
Uses carer as safe base to explore environment.
4-9 yrs Children lose their body shape as a baby and begin to look like a young adult. They develop their balance and their rate of growth slows down. *Their fine and gross motor skills continue to develop as they age. Learning and retaining certain information. Children don’t see other people’s perspectives and think that everyone sees the world as the do. They don’t understand conservation; they don’t understand that just because something appears to have changed it hasn’t. *A child’s intellectual growth is advanced through school; they learn basic skills such as reading, writing and math skills. If the attachment with their carer is healthy and normal, a child should be able to adjust to meeting other children and starting nursery and school. Self-esteem and self-concept become important as it can determine a person’s personality. *Jealousy and temper tantrums are common, can be due to younger sibling or fighting with parents. Attachment to main carer still important but child is less clingy and starts to make relationships with others.
10-18 yrs Puberty is triggered by the hormones secreted from the endocrine glands, which prepares the body for sexual reproduction. Growth spurts are also common at this age. *Changes in boys – voice deepens, body hair grows, penis grows and testicles descend. Girls – breasts develop, periods start and hips widen, etc. Children begin to think more logically and can make abstract judgements on hypothetical scenarios. By the beginning of this stage children can understand conservation. * Learning continues but isn’t limited to school and intellectual growth, emotional and social learning takes place with help from friends Increased hormonal production can lead to mood swings and aggressive behaviour. They experience falling in love, conflict and stress. * Fights with parents are more common, especially when they start having romantic relationships. Peers become increasingly important as a source of knowledge about norms, behaviour and the world.
First romantic/ sexual relationships begin due to impact of hormones at puberty.
19-65 yrs The body is at peak performance between the ages 18 and 28, women are most fertile between the ages of 16 and 24. Sperm production declines around 40. *After the age of 40 wrinkles are more apparent and more noticeable, grey hairs begin to appear, body systems become harder to regulate. Adults develop an ability to make more skilful and flexible judgements and the development of intellect peaks during the middle of adulthood. Memory becomes less effective as we age. *…