Diabetes: Diabetes Mellitus and Type Ii Diabetes Essay example

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People’s participation in physical activity is influenced by the built, natural and social environments in which they live as well as by personal factors such as sex and age and ability, time and motivation. Physical activity is an essential component of any strategy that aims to seriously address the problems of sedentary living and obesity among adults. Physical activity is beneficial to health at all ages. It is especially important to the healthy development of children and young people; active ageing can make a dramatic difference to the well-being of older people. The Physical Activity intervention strives to investigate the question "Can routine screening be paired with education and physical activity decrease one's chance of developing type II diabetes?” Through an assortment of behavioral theories and constructs, questionnaires and other activities will enhance the awareness of physical activity. Evaluation techniques will be used over the 6-month intervention, and adults 65+ will be educated about physical activity and its advantages as it relates to Type II Diabetes.

Introduction and Literature Review

Diabetes mellitus type II formerly non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency (Kumar et al., 2005). Diabetes is often initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. If the condition progresses, medications may be needed. Often affecting the obese, diabetes requires patients to routinely check their blood sugar.

The classic symptoms of diabetes are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger), fatigue and weight loss (Cooke, Plotnick 2008). Type II diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia through disease processes such as Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Researchers have shown that reduced glucose tolerance has deleterious effects on memory in the elderly, and concomitant hippocampal atrophy (Convit, 2003). Type II diabetes is due to a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors (Riserus, 2009). Recently, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or prenatal under-nutrition (macro- and micronutrient) was identified as another probable factor (Ripsin, 2009). Obesity has been found to contribute to approximately 55% of cases of type 2 diabetes, (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004) and decreasing consumption of saturated fats and trans fatty acids while replacing them with unsaturated fats may decrease the risk (Riserus, 2009). Dietary fat intake is linked to diabetes risk (Salmeron, 2003). A 2010 meta-analysis of eleven studies involving 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes (Vasanti, 2010) found that “SSBs (sugar-sweetened beverages) may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes not only through obesity but also by increasing dietary glycemic load, leading to insulin resistance, B-cell dysfunction, and inflammation.” Environmental toxins may contribute to recent increases in the rate of type 2 diabetes. A weak positive correlation has been found between the concentration in the urine of bisphenol A, a constituent of some plastics, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (Lang, 2008). Obesity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol (combined hyperlipidemia), pathophysiology and with the condition often termed metabolic syndrome (it is also known as Syndrome X, Reavan’s syndrome, or CHAOS) can potentially give rise to, or exacerbate type 2 diabetes. Other causes include acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, chronic pancreatitis, cancer and drugs. Additional factors found to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes include aging, (Jack, 2004) high-fat diets (Lovejoy, 2003) and less active lifestyle (Hu, 2003). Hypogonadism is often