NUR427: Health and Chronic Disease Management
Instructor: Shannon Smith
Glucose, which is commonly called blood sugar, can be vital to the human body. Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar. In this essay, Diabetes type two as it relates to a fictional case study will be analyzed. The case study will focus on Jenna Riley, a 14-year-old female who was recently diagnosed with diabetes type two which is a form of Diabetes where the human cell becomes resistant to the effect of insulin. Once considered a disease that only affects adults, is now seeing a significant number of adolescents being diagnosed. In this essay, the typical presenting signs of diabetes will be reviewed as well as its potential effects on the body as a chronic process. The incidence of Diabetes in the United States will be reviewed. Lastly, Jenna’s psychosocial challenges and teaching requirements regarding Diabetes will be presented.
Since Type II Diabetes Mellitus develops slowly and insidious there may be no signs initially, but there are risk factors to be aware of. These risk factors include, obesity, family history, sedentary lifestyle, and ethnic background. Symptom’s that are classic for diabetes, and may lead a patient to seek medical attention includes; being thirsty, increased urination, weight loss, and slow wound healing. Some youth may present with a yeast infection or burning urination due to yeast infections (National Diabetes Education Program, 2010). Jenna admitted to feeling hungry all the time, she suffered from fatigue and obesity, and she has Acanthoses Nigricans (skin around the neck, or in the arm pits appears dark and thick, and velvety). While these initial signs and symptoms are very serious, the long-term effects of the disease can be even more severe.
Initial effects of diabetes can be harmful to the body, but potential long-term effects on the body of people with diabetes can be devastating. The long-term affect of uncontrolled diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerves. These complications can take a number of years of poorly controlled diabetes to develop. Diabetes influences almost every body system. Diabetes affects on the heart are due to its contribution to high blood pressure, and diabetes can contribute to stroke due to raising cholesterol levels. Also, diabetes retinopathy is a major complication of Diabetes that affects the eyes. This complication is due to the effects of uncontrolled blood sugar levels on the nerves of the eyes (American Diabetes Association, 2011). At this point Jenna is newly diagnosed so she can avoid these potential effects with proper education. Even with all the learning materials available for Diabetes, nationwide the incidence for Diabetes is grim.
Incidence refers to the rate of which something occurs. Take this excerpt from the CDC website: “The number of adults in the United States aged 18–79 with newly diagnosed diabetes has more than tripled from 493,000 in 1980 to over 1.5 million in 2011. The number of new cases of diabetes has increased since the early 1990s to 2006. From 2006 to 2011, the number of new cases of diagnosed diabetes has shown no significant change.” ("Centers For Disease Control And Prevention", 2013). Although according to this data the disease may have run rampant for decades, according to the CDC the incidence of diabetes although greatly increased since the 1980s has leveled off. The prevalence of the disease is still a significant number however. According to the latest CDC estimates, 20.9 million people currently have Diabetes. This number represents a considerable need for the healthcare industry and it shows that healthcare providers have to be vigilant in the face of such dire statistics. Much of this responsibility will fall to nurse teachers.
The teaching needs for Jenna Riley are extensive, and