(Approximately 100 words on each system, 4 marks per system.)
The skeletal system
The skeletal system has five main functions;
The rigidity of our bones allows them to protect our internal organs from damage for example the rib cage and the skull protect our lungs and brain.
The cranium protects the brain,
The thorax (The rib cage, spine, and sternum) protects the heart and lungs,
The vertebral column protects the spinal cord
The pelvis protects the abdominal and reproductive organs.
Attachment for skeletal muscles
The skeleton provides a framework for attachment of the skeletal muscles via tendons as well as the attachment of ligaments. The skeletal system provides a lever system in order to create joint motion and movement. Some joints allow a broader range of movement than others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint situated at the neck. Muscles, bones, and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement.
The skeletal frame provides a structural framework, giving the body a supportive framework for soft tissue, and providing it with shape. The pelvis, associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the rib cages, costal cartilages, and intercostal muscles, the lungs would simply collapse.
Store of minerals
Bone stores minerals, such as calcium, phosphate and magnesium; these are essential for growth and bone health. Minerals are released into the bloodstream as and when the body requires them. Bone marrow can store iron in ferritin (intracellular protein) and is involved in iron metabolism , the yellow bone marrow stores fat.
Source or red blood cell production
Bone marrow found within the bone produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets (haematopoiesis) with new blood cells produced daily.
The nervous system
The nervous system is concerned with the integration and control of all bodily functions. The nervous system is essentially a biological information highway, and is responsible for controlling all the biological processes and movement in the body, and can also receive information and interpret it via electrical signals which are used in this nervous system.
It makes it possible for us to be aware of our environment and to respond to changes within that environment.
The Central Nervous System is effectively the centre of the nervous system and the part of it that processes the information received from the peripheral nervous system (detects and sends electrical impulses that are used in the nervous system). The Central nervous system consists of the brain, cranial nerves, the spinal cord and spinal nerves. It is responsible for receiving and interpreting signals from the peripheral nervous system and also sends out signals to it, either consciously or unconsciously. Incoming messages are carried by sensory nerves and the brain is able to interpret such messages in the light of experience. The three parts to the brain are the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem. Outgoing messages from the brain are carried by motor nerves and result in movement and activity.
The Endocrine system
By regulating the functions of organs in the body, these glands help to maintain the body’s homeostasis. Cellular metabolism, reproduction, sexual development, sugar and mineral homeostasis, heart rate, and digestion are among
The endocrine system includes all of the glands of the body and the hormones produced by those glands. Endocrine glands are ductless glands, so called because the secretions they make do not leave the glands through ducts, but pass directly into the blood circulating through the substance of the glands. The glands are controlled directly by stimulation from the nervous system as well as by chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands.
The following is a list of…