Digestion and Red Blood Cells Essay

Submitted By Sophieswain
Words: 1729
Pages: 7

Unit 5


Follow guidelines to interpret collected data for heart rate, breathing rate and temperature before and after a standard period of exercise.

P4 –
Cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system has many different functions. The four major functions are to transport nutrients, gases and waste products around the body, to protect the body from infection and blood loss, to help the body maintain a constant body temperature and to help the body maintain fluid balance. It has many different structures within the cardiovascular system too. The main structures include the heart, the blood vessels and the blood. The heart is the key organ in the circulatory system. Its main function is to propel blood throughout the body. It usually beats from 60 to 100 times per minute but it can go much faster during exercise. There are three types of blood vessels which are the arteries, veins, and capillaries. Energy metabolism is generally defined as the entirety of an organism's chemical processes. These chemical processes are categorized as being either catabolic or anabolic. Energy is needed in order for our body to be able to function. Energy helps break down molecules and to build new molecules. The cardiovascular system transports the oxygen and glucose to the cells and transports the waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea away from the cells to other parts of the body like the lungs or the kidneys. A.T.P (adenosine triphosphate) is a chemical energy that you produce when you burn nutrient molecules. The main source of energy for living organisms is a sugar called glucose. In breaking down glucose the energy in the glucose molecule's chemical bonds is released and can be harnessed by the cell to form ATP molecules. Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units to release energy. In catabolism, large molecules such as lipids, nucleic acids and proteins are broken down into smaller units such as fatty acids and amino acids. When food is broken down energy is released as the foods molecules’ bonds are broken. Then this energy is used to reform the bonds that have been broken so that ATP can be recreated. More energy can be obtained when oxygen is present and the process proceeds on aerobically. The aerobic production of ATP occurs inside the mitochondria in cells. The broken down food molecules then enters the blood stream. Blood is a liquid connective tissue as it is made up of red and white living cells. Oxygen is transported in the red blood cells which are attached to a protein called haemoglobin. Nutrients including glucose are dissolved in the plasma. Plasma is a mixture of water, sugar, fat, proteins and salts. The main function of the plasma is to transport blood cells throughout your body along with nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins and chemical messengers such as hormones that help maintain the body’s fluid balance. The red blood cells also carry iron which attracts oxygen. Our cells use oxygen to make energy. Iron is also needed to keep the immune system healthy and help brain cells. Without your heart, blood vessels and blood you wouldn’t be able to get the nutrient molecules from the food you eat. Your cardiovascular system is dependent upon metabolic reactions. Your heart muscle needs ATP to function. Your cardiovascular system couldn’t exist without the products of metabolism.
Digestive system
The digestive system is the group of organs that breaks down food so that the body can use it. It has many different functions and structures which help to break down food and many other different processes. One of the functions is the ingestion of the food which involves somebody taking in the food so it enters the body through the mouth where it is mixed with saliva. Digestion which involves two forms. One form is the mechanical breakdown of food by chewing and the action of muscles within the digestive tract and secondly the chemical