Digestive System Test Guide Essay

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Test 4 Study Guide:

CH. 24 Digestive System-

1. Alimentary Canal: from mouth to anus about 29-30 ft. long 2. 6 main organs of digestion: a. mouth b. pharynx c. esophagus d. stomach e. small intestine f. large intestine 3. 7 accessory organs of digestion: g. teeth h. salivary glands i. tongue j. gallbladder k. pancreas l. lver m. appendix 4. 4 coats of digestive tract: n. Fibroserous (serosa)— i. Purpose is protection ii. outer coat iii. serous membrane o. Muscular— iv. Purpose is movement v. Composed of smooth muscle vi. Longitudinal and circular membrane p. submucous— vii. purpose is vascular layer (blood vessels) viii. absorption take place here ix. contains a lot of the glands needed for digestion q. mucous— x. layer nect to the food xi. purpose is secretion of mucus xii. some area have villi and microvilli 5. mastication- chewing movements tongue reduce size of food particles and mix them with saliva 6. deglutition- swallowing movement of food from mouth to stomach 7. cheeks: represent the sidewalls of the mouth r. cheeks and lips have a core of skeletal muscle covered externally by skin s. the orbicularis oris muscle forms the bulk of the fleshy lips t. the cheeks are formed but the buccinator muscle 8. tongue: composes most of the floor of mouth and is made of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane u. papillae xiii. filiform papillae xiv. fungiform papillae xv. circumvallate papille v. taste buds w. frenulum 9. fauces—opening which leads from the mouth to the oropharynx 10. Uvula—small cone shaped process at the posterior soft palate that closes of the internal nares during deglutition 11. 20 deciduous teeth (baby teeth) x. 4 central incisors y. 4 lateral incisors z. 4 canines {. 8 molars
32 permanent teeth a. 4 central incisors b. 4 lateral incicors c. 4 canines d. 8 premolar e. 8-12 molars (4wisdom teeth) 12. anatomy of tooth |. crown- portion above gum }. root- portion below gum ~. neck- between crown and root . gingiva- same as gum . enamel- outer white surface . dentin- bonelike material that forms most of tooth . pulp- combo of soft tissues, blood vessels, nerve fibers . cementum- outer layer of root 13. saliva- is a moistening, cleaning and lubricating solution that is constantly secreted in the mouth; it binds food particles together; it begins the digestions of starch; it has enzyme (lipase) to attach emulsified fat. . Saliva is 99% water and the rest is electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate and others. 14. secretion of saliva is controlled by PARASYMPATHETIC nerves and may stop during dehydration to conserve water. When water is restored, salvation continues. 15. AYLASE: when starch (polysaccharide) begins digestion, and LIPASE: begins digestion of emulsified fat. 16. Parietal cells: when Ptyalin is swallowed and reaches the stomach, it stimulates the PARIETAL CELLS to release hydrochloric acid (HCL) 17. Salivary Glands: . Partotid glands xvi. Located anterior and inferior to ear xvii. Secrete watery mucous and large amount of ptyalin xviii. Parotid duct is also known as Stensons duct . submandibular glands: xix. are in the inferior floor of mouth xx. secrete semi-thick mucous with a reasonable amount off ptyalin xxi. duct also known as Whartons duct . sublingual duct: xxii. are in the inferior part of the floor of mouth (under tongue) xxiii. secrete thicker mucous and small amount of ptyalin