Disease-Deviation From The Normal State Of Homeostasis

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Review Guide Exam 1

Chapter 1: Disease- deviation from the normal state of homeostasis
Syndrome- collection of signs and symptoms, often affecting more than one organ
Ischemia- deficiency of oxygen in the cells
Acute disease- rapid onset and short course
Chronic diseases- long-lasting condition that can be controlled but not cured
Terminal- predicted to lead to death
Remission- the manifestations of the diseases subside
Relapse- a deterioration in someone's state of health after a temporary improvement
Signs- straight up objective can be seen and measured ex. temperature
Symptoms- Subjective, chief complaint(what patient says)
The cause of a disease is called etiology
Factors determining a diagnosis are evaluating signs and symptoms & lab tests
Sequela- unwanted outcomes of primary condition
Diagnosis- identification of a specific disease
Prognosis- probability of recovery or for other outcome
Homeostasis- stable internal environment
Risk factors-put you at risk of developing a disease but do not determine that you will develop a disease

Chapter 2:

Correct proportion of water for an adult- 60%
Causes of edema- high blood pressure or increased blood volume
Effects of edema- cause swelling or enlargement of tissue, pitting edema, and pale or red in color
Dehydration- fluid deficit
Hyponatremia- low sodium levels caused by vomiting, diarrhea, excessive water and sweating. A profound effect- cerebral edema
Hypernatremia- high sodium levels caused by too much salt and not enough water. A profound effect edema or increased blood pressure.
Hypokalemia- low potassium levels caused diuretics or low intake. A profound effect could be cardiac dysrhythmia.
Hyperkalemia- high potassium levels caused by renal failure or using potassium-sparing diuretics. A profound effect is cardiac dysrhythmia.
Milk-alkali syndrome- high calcium levels and body's acid shifts toward alkaline. It can lead to metastatic calcification.

Chapter 5:

Signs and symptoms of inflammation- heat, redness, swelling, and pain.
Phagocytosis- engulfing of microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles by phagocytes
Chemotaxis- directional movement in response to the influence of chemical stimulation
Vasodialation causes the smooth muscle to relax and blood flow to increase to the area of inflammation.
Inflammatory response is caused by tissue damage
Non-specific immune defenses- phagocytosis and fever
Exudate- A fluid that has exuded out of a tissue or its capillaries due to injury or inflammation.
Fever accelerates the internal workings of cells and tries to make a unfavorable area for the virus or bacteria
Types of healing are Resolution- minimal tissue damage, Regeneration- damaged tissue/cells capable of mitosis, and Replacement-scar formation
Adhesions- scar tissue joining surface. They have a surgical risk because they prevent normal movement
Burn classifications- First degree- superficial affect only first layer of skin, Second degree affect first 2 levels of skin, and Third degree affects all 3 levels
Rule of 9s- determines severity of burn

Chapter 6:

Infectious disease- disorders caused by organisms
Bacteria- single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent organisms or as parasites
Virus- small obligate intracellular parasites, requires a living cell to duplicate
Latent virus infection- virus enters cell as with active infection, may reproduce actively if immune system is depressed ex: herpes
Fungi- eukaryotic organism (containing nucleus) only a few are pathogenic
Helminth- flatworms or roundworms
Prion- protein-like agents that change the shape of proteins within cells
Opportunistic infection- stay in check until immune system is compromised
Normal flora- bacteria that are naturally found in the body but do not attack the body until the opportunity occurs
Modes of transmission- droplet- respiratory or salivary secretions are expelled from infected individual, aerosol- small particles from the respiratory tract "airborne",