Measles, also known as morbilli, English measles, or rubeola is an infection of the respiratory system, immune system and skin caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus.
Swollen glands, usually behind the ears and at the back of the neck. Sometimes glands in other parts of the body swell. The glands gradually go back to normal over a week or so.
A spotty, pink-red rash develops any time up to seven days after the glands swell. The rash usually starts behind the ears, then spreads to the face and neck and then spreads to the rest of the body. The rash lasts 3-5 days before fading.
A mild fever, cold, cough and sore throat are common.
Sore red eyes (conjunctivitis) may develop for a few days.
Joint pains, like a mild arthritis, may develop for a week or so. This is less common in children, but is quite common in adults with rubella.
Other symptoms may include fever, tiredness and headache.
There is no treatment that will kill the virus. Most people with rubella are not very ill, do not need any treatment, and soon make a full recovery. The immune system makes antibodies during the infection. These clear the virus and then provide lifelong immunity. It is therefore very rare to have more than one bout of rubella.
How it spread?
It is passed on by direct contact and by coughing and sneezing the virus into the air. It takes 2-3 weeks to develop symptoms after being infected
It’s a “VIRUS”
Haemophilus influenzae, or H. influenzae, is a group of bacteria that cause different types of infections in infants and children. H. influenzae most commonly causes ear, eye or sinus infections and pneumonia.
Otitis media (middle ear infection).
Conjunctivitis. An inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. The conjunctiva is the membrane that lines the inside of the eyelid and also a thin membrane that covers the actual eye.
Sinusitis. Infection in the sinuses.
Meningitis. Due to the H. influenzae type b vaccine, meningitis (due to this bacteria) is very rare in children and infants. Meningitis is an infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms may include:
In children older than 1 year:
Neck and/or back pain, especially when moving the chin toward the chest
Nausea and vomiting
In infants, symptoms are difficult to pinpoint and may include:
Sleeping all the time
Refusing a bottle
Crying when picked up or being held
Bulging fontanelle (or soft spot)
Is often resistant to bend their neck when trying to play with or pick up a toy
Regardless of the location, antibiotics may be used to treat infections caused by H. influenzae. The length of treatment varies depending on the location and severity of the infection.
How its Spread?
Haemophilus influenzae bacteria, including Hib, are spread person-to-person by direct contact or through respiratory droplets like by coughing and sneezing. Usually the bacteria remain in the nose and throat — causing no harm.
Meningococcal disease is a severe bacterial infection of the bloodstream or meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) caused by the meningococcus germ.
Meningococcus (Neisseria meningitides)
fever, stiff neck, headache, nausea and vomiting, light sensitivity
Shock; signs of shock include:
Toxic/moribund state; altered mental state/decreased conscious level.
Unusual skin colour, capillary refill time more than 2 seconds; cold hands/feet.
Tachycardia and/or hypotension; respiratory symptoms or breathing difficulty.
Poor urine output.
Meningococcal disease can be treated with a number of effective antibiotics. It is important that treatment be started as soon as possible.…