DNA has become crucial in forensics and in the solving of major crimes. Give a background to DNA and explain why it has become so important in crime scene investigations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is molecule that carries the genetic code of organisms. DNA is in each cell in organisms and tells the cells what proteins to make. DNA has the blueprint essential for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce. Almost every cell in a person's body has the same DNA. DNA is found inside of the cell called the nucleus; each DNA molecule must be securely and tightly packaged because we have so many. The finished package is called a chromosome. DNA is made nucleotides; nucleotides are connected into chains, with groups alternating, creating a strand of DNA. There are four types of bases found in nucleotides: (A) adenine, (T) thymine, (G) guanine and (C) cytosine. We carry 6 billion base pairs in our DNA. DNA testing can identify the exact genetic basis of a disorder, making it possible to create a more effective therapy and treatment for individuals affected by genetic disease. DNA has become so important in crime scene investigations because no individual is exactly the same as another. A powerful tool used is DNA fingerprinting to the identification of individuals, though it does not evaluate the cell’s most important gene’s, it does evaluate sections of DNA that have little or no known function but change widely from one individual to another. A sample of human DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme, and then using gel electrophoresis, it detaches the fragments. This creates a chain of bands – the DNA fingerprint. DNA samples can be acquired from blood, sperm or hair that has small pieces of tissue at