Essay on Dna and Specific Amino Acid

Submitted By eyadm
Words: 1646
Pages: 7

11. mRNA: mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis: the ribosomes. Here, the nucleic acid polymer is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein. tRNA: transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. Basically forms the protein. rRNA: provide a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and to interact with the tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity. Basically acts as a coordinator for the actions of mRNA and tRNA.
13the gene is a subunit of DNA, one strand of DNA is copied into mRNA which is then translated into proteins
15.peptide16. These experiments were to make sure that DNA was the genetic material which had been discovered by the Swiss physician Friedrich Miescher in his experiments on white blood cells or leukocytes between 1868 and 1869. Hershey shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his “discoveries concerning the genetic structure of viruses.”
17. Griffith worked with two related strands of bacteria which cause pneumonia in mice. He discovered that when harmless live bacteria were mixed with heat-killed disease-causing bacteria and then injected into mice, the mice died. Griffith’s experiment led to to the conclusion that genetic material could be transferred between cells.
18replication-cell's nucleus transcription-cytoplasm of the cell translation-ribosomes attach to the mRNA and translate it into a polypeptide
19. A codon is a three-base sequence (three nitrogen bases in a row) on mRNA. It calls for a specific amino acid to be brought to the growing polypeptide.
An anticodon is a three-base sequence on tRNA. It matches the codon.
20Transcription and translation occurs in protein synthesis. Transcription occurs with an assistance of an enzyme called RNA polymerase by which messenger RNA copies the genetic code in a DNA molecule. Translation is the process by which transfer RNA reads the code on the messenger RNA and gets the amino acids to get the protein.
23, Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together.
24The analysis of DNA from samples of body tissues or fluids in order to identify individuals.,.It helps to determine maternity and paternity, as well as siblings. This method also identifies criminals and victims.
25.. An enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria, having the property of cleaving DNA molecules at or near a specific sequence of bases.
26, A genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplas...
27. PCR stands for polymerase chain reaction. PCR is a process that is done to take a little bit of DNA as well as the enzyme DNA polymerase and amplify (increase) the DNA sample. In short, it's a way to make more DNA from a small sample.
28The crossing over is the process of exchange of DNA between homologous chromosomes whereas the independent assortment is the process in which the chromosome pairs align themeselves at the equator of the cell . Crossing over takes place in Prophase I of meiosis I whereas the independent assortment takes place in metaphase I of meiosis I.
29, Genetic diversity, the level of biodiversity, refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species....

30.Mitosis produces the cells of the body. When they split they produce identical cellswith a complete set of DNA. They are exactly like their parents. It only has one division and that leads to two cells.
33. embryo, diploid
35. the number of chromosomes in the gametes (eggs and sperm0 is half
36. the genotype is the actual genetic make-up of an individual (the letters in your punnett square) The gene responsible for eye color the phenotype is the way those genes