Navdeep Singh Period 4 Date 5-18-2015
Mr.Sanchez Chemistry B Inside the human body there lies something very unique to us that we call the DNA. It is predicted that there are over 3 billion base-pairs of DNA inside the average human. DNA itself is huge so let’s cover the basics you need to know about it. The DNA includes, RNA, Double-Helix, Base-pairing and an alternate DNA structure. It may seem amazing but beware your DNA can be damaged and or Replicated. In crime DNA comes very handy because detectives use forensics. Every living thing on the planet or most things have a DNA inside of them, therefore DNA is said to have evolved over the trillions of years.
Translation is the final step on the way from DNA to protein. It is the synthesis of proteins directed by mRNA template. The information contained in the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA is read as three letter words (triplets), called codons. Each word stands for one amino acid. During translation amino acids are linked together to form a polypeptide chain which will later be folded into a protein. The translation is dependent on many components, of which two are extra important. First of all; the ribosome which is the cellular factory responsible for the protein synthesis. It consists of two different subunits, one small and one large and is built up from rRNA and proteins. Inside the ribosome the amino acids are linked together into a chain through multiple biochemical reactions. The second component is the tRNA, a specialized RNA molecule that carries an amino acid at one end and has a triplet of nucleotides, an anticodon, at the other end. The anticodon of a tRNA molecule can base pair, i.e form chemical bonds, with the mRNA's three letter codon. Thus the tRNA acts as the translator between mRNA and protein by bringing the specific amino acid coded for by the mRNA codon. Transcription sequences are found close to the ends of the sequences that are not coded. There are two types of bacteria. In the rhoindependent terminators, inverted repeat sequences are transcribed, they can then fold back on themselves in the hairpin loops, causing RNA pol to pause and resulting In release of the transcription. On the other hand, rhoindependent terminators make us use of a factor called rho, which actively unwinds the DNA-RNA hybrid formed during transcription, therefore releasing the newly and improved synthesized RNA. In eukaryotes, terminations of transcription occurs by many and a various different processes depending on the exact amount of polymerase that have or has been used. Now For the Pol 1 genes, In it Translation is stopped by using a terminal factor, through a mechanism that is very similar to rhoindependent termination sequence that includes a polykaryotic termination. Transcription of the poll III genes that end after transcribing a termination sequence that includes a polyuracil stretch, by a mechanism resembling rho-independent prokaryotic termination. The Termination of the Pol II transcripts, however, is far more complex and very complicated.
The DNA has a strand which is called the Double-helix. Hybridization is the process of complementary base pairs binding which in time forms a Double-Helix. Melting is the process by which the interactions between the strands of the Double-Helix are broken, separating two nucleic acid strands. These bonds are very weak, and can easily be broken very fast. They are also easily separated by gentle heating, enzymes, or the brute force of physical force. The melting occurs sometimes at a certain point that is in the nucleic acid. T and A are the richer