Absolutism 1. What is meant by divine right of kings? 2. What country did Peter the Great rule? 3. What is westernization? Why did Peter the Great want to “westernize” his country? 4. What was Louis XIV trying to do when he built the palace at Versailles? English Revolutions 1. What or who was brought back to England during the Restoration? 2. Who came to power during the Glorious Revolution? After the Glorious Revolution, who had more authority in England—the monarch or Parliament? What document was signed at this time that made England a constitutional monarchy? Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment 1. What is the Heliocentric Theory? Know the importance of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. 2. Which Enlightenment philosopher believed that man is violent and that governments need to be absolute monarchies (strong central governments) in order to maintain control? 3. Which Enlightenment philosopher influenced the Declaration of Independence? The U.S. Constitution? The U.S. Bill of Rights? Know exactly how these people influenced these documents. 4. What is meant by “separation of powers”, “life, liberty, and property”, the right to “alter or abolish unfair governments”, and “government by consent of the governed”? 5. Who are Bach and Mozart? French Revolution, Napoleon, and the Congress of Vienna 1. What event is the immediate cause of the French Revolution? 2. During the Reign of Terror, what was Robespierre trying to accomplish? 3. How did the French Revolution affect the rest of Europe? 4. Who came to power at the end of the French Revolution? 5. Napoleon introduced his Napoleonic Code to those areas he conquered. What is it? Why is this important? 6. Why was the Congress of Vienna held? What did the leaders of the Congress of Vienna want to accomplish? 7. What is meant by “balance of power”? Why did the Congress of Vienna want this situation? Unification of Italy and Germany 1. Who is responsible for the unification of Germany? What is meant by “realpolitik”? 2. Why is the Franco-Prussian War important in the process of the unification of Germany? 3. Who was responsible for the unification of Italy? Independence movements 1. What did Toussaint L’Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, and Miguel Hidalgo do? What philosophy influenced their revolutions? 2. What is the Monroe Doctrine and how did it affect Latin America? Industrial Revolution and Imperialism 1. How did the location of where people live change during the Industrial Revolution? 2. What is the domestic system or cottage industries? 3. What was the most important source of power during the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s? 4. Which Industry was the first to mechanize? Where did the Industrial Revolution start? 5. What was the British Enclosure Movement? Why was it important to the Industrial Revolution?
Industrial Revolution and Imperialism (cont.) 6. What did James Watt invent or create? Louis Pasteur? Eli Whitney? 7. How did the invention of the cotton gin affect slavery in the U.S.? 8. During the 1800s, how were the working conditions for most factory or mine workers? Which groups of people worked in these places? 9. Why were labor unions formed? 10. Know what is meant by capitalism? Know what is meant by socialism/communism? Who is Karl Marx? 11. Why did European nations turn to imperialism during the 1800s? How did imperialism promote competition among European nations? How did imperialist nations feel about non-European cultures? How did imperialism promote the westernization of Asia and Africa? What is meant by “the white