Psychology 260 Child Development
Unit 3: Module 3 - M3 Assignment 2
Instructor Rochelle Taormina
By Mary Douglas
The study of early child development have been around for a long time, there are many theories, some even contradict the other, but they have all been proven and researched to be valuable as we continue to practice them and search for more appropriate, efficient and effective ways to assist children developmentally.
Introduction Two peer reviewed articles, “Understanding Children’s Motivation From Self-Determination”, and “The Heart Divide,” discussed cognitive development research in very young children and found there was a big difference in the way research was done on older children. The implication for practice looked into the three human psychological needs and explained the self-determination theory (SDT). Studies of the Child video clip details and contrast the text lesson on the main theoretical perspectives and the researchers of child development.
The field of study in early child development covers growth in children from the womb through adolescence, scientifically looking at the patterns of growth, changes and stability. The studies cover the physical, cognitive, social and personality development; with culture, ethnicity, racial, and socioeconomic status playing a prominent part in the social influences that affect development.
Almost everybody has a theory about early child development, some well known names were major researchers, Jean Piaget, who focused primarily on cognitive development, Erik Erikson whose main objective was psychodynamic development, B.F. Skinner whose concern was behavioral development and Lev Vygotsky who focused on contextual development, although they conducted research and various studies in the early days of child development studies, we still follow their findings today. Cognitive development places emphasis on growth in the ways we comprehend knowledge and how we think about our universe will make a difference in our behavior. Psychodynamic development is the subconscious remembrance from childhood that powers our life and the influences of other people, society and culture. Behavioral development is the response to environmental stimuli that is cultivated through reinforcement of reactions to various circumstances. Contextual development is the study of relationships, their physical, cognitive, personality, social and physical worlds, and how they affect our behavior. Cognition is formed by social interactions. Piaget, Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson all believed in the theory that cognitive development happens in stages, always in the same order, from the very young infants’ reflexive movements, to how young children deal with trying things, their successes and failures. As the child matures, development reveals itself in stages and in order. B.F. Skinner did not believe development happened in ages and stages, he believed all behavior is learned through the consequences of our own actions, we copy what we get attention for, and omit behavior that does not get attention (Studies of the Child). LeVygotsky and Erikson both followed the theory that culture affect development and that children build on knowledge, not just absorbing it, also, they believed language was a powerful tool.
Behavior is a science, a social learning theory incorporates modeling or imitation to social behavior, if parents hit their child, their child will hit others, culture is a major factor in child development. Children ought to be allowed to be curious about things in their “safe” environment without the assistance of adults. All of the theorist agree that social interaction is of the utmost importance for proper development and learning. Piaget taught that you should help a child if needed, to prevent the child’s frustration, Vygotsky believed you should go ahead and do it for the