Edward’s Syndrome Edward’s Syndrome, most commonly known as Trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder in which there is an additional copy of material of chromosome 18 (“Trisomy 18: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia,” 2013). Instead of the usual two copies, there is a third copy in the person’s body. Children with Edward’s Syndrome can commonly be mistaken for having Down Syndrome because many of the symptoms are similar, but Down Syndrome lies on chromosome 21 rather than chromosome 18. Down Syndrome is also much easier to live with and there are countless amounts of people living with it, but most children with Edward’s Syndrome do not even survive to birth. There are a variety of different symptoms that can come along with Edward’s Syndrome. Some of the most common symptoms are mental delay, low birth weight, clenched hands, low-set ears, or abnormalities in the growth of the child’s body (“Trisomy 18: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia,” 2013). These are just a few of the many symptoms that can come along with the disorder. Trisomy 18 is commonly associated with abnormalities of growth of the body. Not all cases of Trisomy 18 are the same because there are actually three different types of it. The three types are Full Trisomy 18, Partial Trisomy 18, and Mosaic Trisomy 18. Full Trisomy 18, also the most often occurring form, happens when the extra material of chromosome 18 is present in every cell in the child’s body (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). Partial Trisomy 18 is the only type of Edward’s Syndrome that can be inherited, and happens when there is only a piece of the extra material in each cell (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). The last form of Edward’s Syndrome, or Mosaic Trisomy 18, takes place when the additional chromosome 18 is just in some of the cells in the child’s body (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). Each of the different types has a variety of affects on the children and not one type is better than another. Trisomy 18 is not usually inherited from the parents, and if it is, the child diagnosed must have Partial Trisomy 18. Partial Trisomy 18 is the only form that can sometimes be caused by hereditary factors if a parent has extra genetic material in between chromosome 18 and other chromosomes, also called balanced translocation (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). A balanced translocation does not affect the parent in any way, except for having the bigger risk of passing Trisomy 18 on to their child. There are two prenatal tests that can be done to figure out if a child has Trisomy 18. These two exams are screening tests and diagnostic tests, each of which can be done while the mother is pregnant. Screening tests can indicate the possibility if a child has Trisomy 18 and comparing the results of the exam to other similar cases (“What is Trisomy 18,” 2013). This test does not diagnose Trisomy 18, but rather indicates the probability of a child having the disorder. The second test, a diagnostic test, does actually have the ability to diagnose a baby with Edward’s Syndrome. Diagnostic tests verify if the cells in a child’s body have the extra material of chromosome 18, therefore identifying if they have Edward’s Syndrome (“What is Trisomy 18,” 2013). Edward’s syndrome does not have a cure, but there are many treatment options for the person who is diagnosed. Treatments can be different for different people diagnosed with the disorder, but some of the most common medical treatment includes stopping infections, providing supplements to avoid malnutrition, along with managing orthopedic and cardiac problems (Chen, Harold. 2013). In the United States, approximately one of every 2,500 babies is diagnosed with Edward’s Syndrome (“What is Trisomy 18,” 2013). The disorder is actually much more common than most people would expect it to be. Unfortunately, a large amount of babies with Trisomy 18 don’t survive to birth, and only about ten percent of them live past the age of one (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). The chance of a woman having a baby with
reality, nature doesn’t always create people fairly. For example, any hereditary disease a person gets, physical disabilities they have, or intellectual barriers. Genetic diseases such as Down syndrome, Alzheimer’s, Huntington ’s disease, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, and many others. It also eliminates risk of inherited medical conditions such as obesity, anemia, diabetes, cancer, and many more. These are all held within the make-up of the human genome. Given this knowledge, the sensible thing to do would be…
Huntington’s disease, those repetitions are increased greatly from thirty-six to one hundred and twenty-eight times. That is a huge difference and the higher the repetition rate the earlier the symptoms will begin to show. The excessive reoccurrence breaks down nerve cells in your brain and is eventually fatal. Most people start developing signs of Huntington’s disease in there mid thirties. When the repetition rate of CAD in the DNA is high, symptoms may begin to show signs during early childhood or in teenagers…
beach. I also used to wonder whether or not my friend could see the same way I could, since her eyes looked so different from mine. As a result of all of this, I could not turn down the opportunity to research a disease that has held my curiosity for such a long time.
Albinism is a disease, which is as old as the medical literature itself. The first ever reported case of albinism that came up was in the year 1908. Although the claims of earlier historians that Aulus Gellius and Plinius Secundus…
Prenatal care is medical care for pregnant woman and is important for a healthy pregnancy. Its key components include regular checkups and prenatal testing, eating healthfully, exercising, and beginning as soon as one knows she is pregnant.
During her pregnancy, a woman should see her doctor about once each month for the first six months of pregnancy, then every two weeks for the seventh and eighth month of pregnancy, and then every week until her baby is born. However, if a woman is over 35…
hospital has been proven through evidence based practice to decrease mortality from myocardial infarction. Aspirin interferes with platelet activation, adhesion, and cohesion, preventing further damage when MI is expected or any other acute coronary syndrome (McNab & Burdess, 2009). These are the priority nursing interventions for Mr. Wilson upon admission.
The nurse will then want to administer pain medication to Mr. Wilson if and only if he has either been ruled out for cardiac catheterization or…
forcegenerating mechanisms are similar.
Skeletal Muscle: most skeletal
muscle is attached to bone and its
contraction is responsible for
supporting and moving the skeleton.
The contraction of these muscles is
initiated by action potential
propagating down motoneurons to the
muscle and can be under voluntary
Smooth Muscle: sheets of smooth
muscle surround various hollow
organs and tubes (e.g., stomach,
intestines, urinary bladder, uterus,
blood vessels and airways).
Contraction of these cells…