Essay about Down Syndrome and Medlineplus Medical Encyclopedia

Submitted By lindsaygilbert0
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Edward’s Syndrome Edward’s Syndrome, most commonly known as Trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder in which there is an additional copy of material of chromosome 18 (“Trisomy 18: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia,” 2013). Instead of the usual two copies, there is a third copy in the person’s body. Children with Edward’s Syndrome can commonly be mistaken for having Down Syndrome because many of the symptoms are similar, but Down Syndrome lies on chromosome 21 rather than chromosome 18. Down Syndrome is also much easier to live with and there are countless amounts of people living with it, but most children with Edward’s Syndrome do not even survive to birth. There are a variety of different symptoms that can come along with Edward’s Syndrome. Some of the most common symptoms are mental delay, low birth weight, clenched hands, low-set ears, or abnormalities in the growth of the child’s body (“Trisomy 18: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia,” 2013). These are just a few of the many symptoms that can come along with the disorder. Trisomy 18 is commonly associated with abnormalities of growth of the body. Not all cases of Trisomy 18 are the same because there are actually three different types of it. The three types are Full Trisomy 18, Partial Trisomy 18, and Mosaic Trisomy 18. Full Trisomy 18, also the most often occurring form, happens when the extra material of chromosome 18 is present in every cell in the child’s body (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). Partial Trisomy 18 is the only type of Edward’s Syndrome that can be inherited, and happens when there is only a piece of the extra material in each cell (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). The last form of Edward’s Syndrome, or Mosaic Trisomy 18, takes place when the additional chromosome 18 is just in some of the cells in the child’s body (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). Each of the different types has a variety of affects on the children and not one type is better than another. Trisomy 18 is not usually inherited from the parents, and if it is, the child diagnosed must have Partial Trisomy 18. Partial Trisomy 18 is the only form that can sometimes be caused by hereditary factors if a parent has extra genetic material in between chromosome 18 and other chromosomes, also called balanced translocation (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). A balanced translocation does not affect the parent in any way, except for having the bigger risk of passing Trisomy 18 on to their child. There are two prenatal tests that can be done to figure out if a child has Trisomy 18. These two exams are screening tests and diagnostic tests, each of which can be done while the mother is pregnant. Screening tests can indicate the possibility if a child has Trisomy 18 and comparing the results of the exam to other similar cases (“What is Trisomy 18,” 2013). This test does not diagnose Trisomy 18, but rather indicates the probability of a child having the disorder. The second test, a diagnostic test, does actually have the ability to diagnose a baby with Edward’s Syndrome. Diagnostic tests verify if the cells in a child’s body have the extra material of chromosome 18, therefore identifying if they have Edward’s Syndrome (“What is Trisomy 18,” 2013). Edward’s syndrome does not have a cure, but there are many treatment options for the person who is diagnosed. Treatments can be different for different people diagnosed with the disorder, but some of the most common medical treatment includes stopping infections, providing supplements to avoid malnutrition, along with managing orthopedic and cardiac problems (Chen, Harold. 2013). In the United States, approximately one of every 2,500 babies is diagnosed with Edward’s Syndrome (“What is Trisomy 18,” 2013). The disorder is actually much more common than most people would expect it to be. Unfortunately, a large amount of babies with Trisomy 18 don’t survive to birth, and only about ten percent of them live past the age of one (“Trisomy 18,” 2013). The chance of a woman having a baby with