III. A basic education among all was encouraged by Charlemagne, for he knew that the improvement of learning would improve society. A. Books had become a source of learning for Christians. 1) To Christians, the books “which contained the word of God, the teachings of Christ and of the early fathers, were treasured as the source of all wisdom and authority” (McKitterick 29). 2) Success within the Christian society very much depended on the understanding of Scriptures. Transition- As books became important, literacy did as well. B. Charlemagne knew that “the administrative system might be improved if a few more people could be made to learn to read and write” (Munz 117) 1) The people of the Frankish kingdom had to be able to trust that their government would have the best judgment when issuing laws. 2) Although, if the people within the administrative system were unable to read or write, there would be no way that they could understand the laws that they pass or veto. Transition- By having more literate people within the administrative system, there would be a more trustful and respectful government. C. Charlemagne also “saw the necessity for elementary knowledge in arithmetic so that moveable feasts could be determined with accuracy” (Munz 117). 1) As an example, determining something as simple as dates required a very basic understanding of arithmetic. 2) Charlemagne, as well as his people, could not expect progress in technology without these most basic concepts. D. Through books, insight on the government, and an understanding of the necessity for basic arithmetic, Charlemagne knew that the standardization of a basic amount of education would help others see the importance of being able to read and write and determine moveable feasts with accuracy.
IV. Charlemagne thought of the kingdom’s cultural development as an important matter especially within the arts. A. His push for cultural development allowed the School of Palace at Aachen to develop the monumental imperial style, which was known for creating a feeling of monumental dignity, and give human image a sense of realism by adding a feeling for weight and support. 1) Charlemagne’s “passionate determination to fuse his far-flung possessions into a durable political entity” led him to inspire a strive toward stylistic unity (Berenson 161). 2) He saw that stylistic unity would “minimize local differences... and differences of nation and tribe” which was a step toward political unity (Berenson 162). Transition- The development of the arts brought a sense of unity among the Frankish society. B. Through the Carolingian Renaissance, people came together to improve ideology and material culture. 1) The Renaissance was an “assembled body of clerical thinkers... who dictated and determined