Civilians have suffered in war from the beginning of time. When the barbarians sacked Rome they slaughtered men, women, and children. When the French stormed Spanish towns during the peninsular war the citizens inside were killed and the towns raped and pillaged. These acts had never been seen as anything but a typical act of war, but with the beginning of aerial warfare countries now harnessed the power to destroy and massacre huge groups of people. At this time they redefined the term “war crime” however the question of what is and isn’t a war crime is still often confused. I do not believe that the Dresden bombing was a war crime based off the events leading to the bombing, how the bombing was carried out, and policies of the time period. In a report titled German Strategy and Capacity to Resist, a special British Joint Intelligence Subcommittee predicted that Germany “could collapse as early as mid-April if overrun by the Soviets”(Biddle, 414). However it also warned that they might hold out until November if they could prevent the Soviets from taking key locations. Therefore, any assistance able to be given to the Soviets could shorten the war. Soon after this report the shock to military populations by the German counterattack known as the Battle of the Bulge ended the speculation that the war was almost over and without a doubt contributed to the decision to aerially bombard German cities. The goal of aerial forces was to destroy the fighter aircraft of the enemy, “first by hitting them on the ground and then by taking out the factories that were producing them”(Firebombing of Dresden). On the 24th of July 1943, the raid on Hamburg was to be a prelude of what was to come with the attack on Dresden. The raid was not as destructive as anticipated however the USAAF attacked Hamburg’s military industrial targets, the submarine yard and aircraft engine factory, using daylight precision bombing. Later raids to the city on the 26 and 27th destroyed an area greater than thirteen square miles and an estimated “22,000 died, many cremated by the resulting firestorm or dying from asphyxiation”(Biddle, 416) caused by carbon monoxide and other gases. At the end of 1944 the German army was, while retreating on all fronts, not yet defeated. The Western Allies, in order to aid the Soviets with the use of a strategic bomber force, planned to bomb several eastern cities in conjunction with the Soviet advance. This was put into place mainly to cause confusion among German troops and refugees evacuating from the east and hamper reinforcements from the west. It was suggested that coordinated air attacks by the RAF to aid the current Soviet offensive could have a detrimental effect on German moral. The bombing took place in the final months of the Second World War in four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945. The resulting firestorm destroyed “fifteen square miles of the city centre killing between 22-25,000 people”(Krammer, 210). A decision to bomb Dresden was undertaken due to several reasons: request from the Russians at the Yalta conference in February, it was a German base of operations against Marshall Koniev’s left flank as he advanced into Germany, a munitions storage in the old Dresden arsenal, and its status as a troop reinforcement and transportation center. Dresden was Germany’s seventh-largest city and the largest remaining unbombed built-up area. In an official 1942 guide to the city it was described as “one of the foremost industrial locations of the Reich”(Biddle, 435) and included a list of 127 medium-to-large factories and workshops supplying the army with material. The US Air Force Historical Division wrote a response to the bombing which was classified until December 1978, in the report they listed “aircraft components factories; a poison gas factory (Chemische Fabrik Goye and Company); an anti-aircraft and field gun factory (Lehman); an optical goods factory (Zeiss Ikon AG); as well as factories producing…
The City of Chicago
Brandon J. McGruder
This focus of this paper is to assess the current sources of revenue for the local government in Chicago. Therefore, it will evaluate the current financial management procedures used in Chicago Municipality and establish the loophole that needs to be addressed in order to have better utilization of resources so as to benefit the people. Chicago as a municipality generates revenues from tax, personal and utility tax, and grants…
City of Houston Essay
From the annual Livestock Rodeo to the home of the famous Texans, Houston is definitely the place to be. Although our city is so close to perfect, there are still a few minor and major changes that can be added or tweaked to improve Houston and the lives of Houstonians.
One problem that Houston has is the violence occurring and the effect it has on the youth. If I were in the shoes of a city employee or even the mayor, the first thing I would work on is to add more…
The elected City of London Corporation acts as the local authority for the Square Mile business district around St Paul’s. It supports the UK-based financial services industry and provides many other services and facilities for London and the wider UK as well as provides open space and safeguards heritage. The City Corporation has three sources of finance: local authority, its own charity, and an endowment fund. All City of London services involve procurement. Procurement can…
Manhattan, at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street
The Empire State Building is the world’s most famous office building.
It’s a classic New York City attraction; it offers a wonderful view of New York City and the surrounding area.
Located in the Bronx borough of New York City within Bronx Park.
It is the world’s largest urban zoo. Housing more than 6,000 animals representing about 650 species from around the world, the zoo comprises 265…
March 20, 2013
Country Versus City Living
There are many advantages and disadvantages to living in the city and the country. There are some major differences between the two and before some one considers either they really need to think about what style of living do they want. Some people want to live in town because there is less traveling that has to be done. There are many more public events that take place in the city. Larger school systems can provide greater opportunities…
automobiles, but production had been shifted to help with the war efforts (jeeps, weapons, etc), pent up demand was created for the automobile.
Concentric Ring/Zone Model E.W. Burgess 1920
1920: Novelty Stage of Automobiles, cars had little impact on city development.
Not many ppl living in CBD district and low income residents live closest to CBD and the “Zone of Transition” (the area of the old industrial core)
Wealthiest people were the only ones who could afford living far from CBD.…
Recently, the interest in innovative development and the need for cities and countries to image
position or re-position have been accelerated. The major reason is significant for various
advantages domestically and internationally in economic, political, social and cultural
development terms (Kotler and Gertner, 2002). According to (Boult, 2014), holistically building a
place can attracts multiple and diverse stakeholders such as business, tourism, and citizens.
Trueman, Klemm and Giroud…
The City of Myra
The City of Myra is the ancient Greek capital of the Lycian Union, which was a geopolitical region in Southern Turkey during ancient times. The land above and around Myra is inhabited today, but is known as the city of Demre. Records of the inhabitation of Myra date back to 168 B.C. It is located on the South Western Coast of Turkey, on the river “Myros”. After 800 years as an important pilgrimage site, as well as a Christian and Lycian Capital, the City of Myra was buried under…
build the foundations of the “healthy” city. To contradict his view he also creates the “feverish” city to explain the repercussions of a city full of luxuries. In essence, the cities that Socrates creates provide insight into his political philosophy and definition of justice.
For instance, in the “healthy” city only necessities of life are accepted like food, clothing, health and shelter. Thus, according to the principle of specialization the citizens of the city would be participating in their roles…