During 8000 B.C.E-600 C.E. both ancient worlds, India and Mesopotamia wanted to keep their economic system and society intact as much as possible. By doing this, the government provided both regions with the caste system. With the caste system, people lived in a patriarchal society, and religious beliefs shaped the community, whereas to India’s caste system, it was enforced through religion.
The caste system in both India and Mesopotamia was developed to main social order in both societies and with that; the patriarchal society was applied. During 8000 B.C.E-600 C.E. men in both worlds tightened the control of women. Women had little to no public authority. Rulers were usually men, and had the power to do things. In Mesopotamia, men dominated public life. Policies and public affairs were all decided by men. According to Hammurabi’s Laws verses 128-143, men were recognized as the head of the family and family decisions were made by them. They had the power to sell their wives and children into slavery, and punish adulterous wives while men could engage in sexual relations with slaves or prostitutes without penalty. During the second millennium, men controlled women’s social and sexual behavior. This was to guarantee the legitimacy of heirs. This control over women spread throughout southwest Asia. In India, the Aryans created a strong patriarchal social order. All priests, warriors, chiefs and warriors were men. Women enjoyed no public authority. Only males were allowed to inherit property, and only men were allowed to control over family rituals that honored deceased ancestors. Women rarely had a formal education which made them remain a male preserve. Just like the Hammurabi’s Laws, the Lawbook of Manu insisted that women were to remain subject to the guidance of the principal men in their lives.
In both regions, India and Mesopotamia, religious beliefs helped shaped the community. It gave a social distinction with priests from other classes. Of course the kings and nobles were of the highest of all classes. But right under them was priests/priestesses. They were closely allied with the ruling elites. Priests/priestesses had a special connection with the gods. Their job was to intervene with their gods to ensure good fortune on their communities. In exchange for this, priests and priestesses from Mesopotamia lived in temple communities. Priests and priestesses in both regions received food, drink, and clothing from people around the city in honor of their duties. Priests in Mesopotamians also controlled local economy, long distance trade, land ownership and employment of all