27, October 2014
Early Republic HW LE
In the election of 1800, there had been much animosity and bitter partisan feeling between the two national political parties. Thomas Jefferson, the new president, recognized the need for a smooth and peaceful transition of power to the federalists to the democraticrepublicans. the federalists quietly accepted their defeat in the election of 1800 and peacefully relinquished control of the federal government to Jefferson's party. The election of 1800 was also named the revolution of 1800 because the passing of power from one political party to another was accomplished without violence.
Jefferson wrote the farmers were the most productive and trustworthy citizens, but recognized that machine based manufacturing was necessary. Jefferson also reduced size of army to 3,350 officers and enlisted men in an austerity program; also to avoid “standing army”.
Embargo act 1807, passed essentially to force briton to abandon seizure of american seamen; had deleterious economic consequences. Secretary of treasury Albert Gallatin issued “report on roads and canals” (1808). Eventually led to completion of the national road.
In foreign policy, Jefferson carried on the neutrality policies of Washington and Adams.
Western expansion was center stage in Jefferson’s vision for the united states. The Louisiana purchase followed in 1803 more than doubled the size of the united states, removed a
European presence from the nations borders, and extended the western frontier to lands beyond the Mississippi. It also opened the way for the Lewis and Clarke expedition of
Jefferson tried other methods for overturning past federalists measures and appointments. He suspended the alien and sedation acts and released those jailed under.
Jefferson failed in an attempt to have arch-federalist Samuel chase removed from the supreme court. Successfully pushed for the repeal of the judiciary act 1802; halted federalist effort to expand their control over the federal court system. Marbury v. madison 1803 established precedent for judicial review. Overall justice marshals supreme court issued decisions that strengthened the federal government over the states.
The founding fathers were aware of the problems with giving one man, or one branch, too much power, and for this reason they developed a system of checks and balances, in which each branch was able to check certain powers of the others. Those favoring the Constitution became known as Federalists, and among them were Alexander Hamilton, James Madison,
George Washington, and John Jay. They believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution, stating that what it does not forbid, it permits. However, many were against the Constitution because they