East Asian World Essay

Submitted By justinef1234
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Pages: 4

Chapter 17 Review: “The East Asian World”

What are the characteristics the Emperor Kangxi believed a ruler should have? -show concern for the welfare of the people -practice diligence -protect the state from enemies -chose able advisors
-balance between leniency and strictness; principle and expedience

What are the three dynasties? Which are non-native? -Yuan (1250-1350) branch of the Mongols established by Kublai Khan -Ming (1369-1644) native Chinese founder Zhu Yuanzhang -Qing (1644-1911) the Manchus

Who was the first European visitor to China, who left a written record of his experience in the 13th century? Which dynasty and ruler did he visit? -Marco Polo visited Beijing during reign of Kublai Khan(Yuan Dynasty) What was the initial impact of Europeans in East Asia? -not a big impact trade was limited most influential was Christian Missionaries

What are some major events/accomplishments during the Ming period? -overthrew Yuan dynasty in 1368 -Voyages of Zhenghe(1405-1433) -Portuguese arrive in S China (1514) -Metteo Ricci (clock maker) arrives in China (1601) -formed alliances (Manchus) -granted trade privileges -major epidemic -peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng (1604-1651) -Li occupied capital Beijing in 1644 -last Ming emperor committed suicide

How did the Ming view the Portuguese when they arrived in 1514? -exotic form of barbarian(uncivilized) -part of tributary system
In 1514, what was the extent of territory under Chinese rule? - steppes of Central Asia to the China Sea and from the Gobi Desert to the rain forests of SE Asia

Describe the trade setup between the Ming, Portuguese and the Spanish -at first direct trade was limited -Portuguese ships became involved
-carrying silk from china to japan in return for
Japanese silver
-Spanish used Philippines as an anchor between china and Americas

“The impact of Ideas were greater than the impact of trade”, explain * ideas introduced by the Christian missionaries
-Jesuits were familiar with European philosophical and scientific developments
- compared Christian concept of god with the Confucian concept of heaven
-European invention of the clock, prism, and instruments

What factors led to the decline of the Ming Dynasty? -began to decline in 16th century -disrupt in silver trade -crop decline because of harsh weather -starvation -high taxes due to corruption -peasant/worker revolt -major epidemic -peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng (1604-1651)

What problems did the early Qing rulers face? How did they cope? * they were foreign Manchus * some Ming loyalist fled to SE Asia * gov. made all Chinese adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles * adopted Chinese political system

Describe the reign of Kangxi
-Kangxi (1661-1722)
-arguable best ruler in Chinese history
-active patron of arts (gained support)
-religiously tolerant(pope issued edict-rejecting this

Describe the reign of Qianlong -Qianlong(1736-1795) -religiously tolerant -pacified unruly tribes -promoted prosperity and arts -first signs of decline -expensive military campaigns -political corruption -higher taxes -population growth -expensive White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804)

Describe Qing Politics -adaptable (retained Ming political system) -devotion to Confucianism (Kangxi issued scared edict)
-banners: manchus assigned farmland and organized into military units
-bannerman: primary fighting force in empire
-dyarchy: important administrative positions shared by Chinese and Manchus

What were the relations with the Russians during this period? * Russians seeking skins and furs * Russians were earlier placed into tributary
-tsar refused tributary rules and kowtow - 1689- Treaty of Nerchinsk
(settled boundary dispute)