Eastern Religions Exam 1 Definitions Essay

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RN Exam 1: IDs
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Analects: Means "Selected Sayings". Short exchanges Written by Confucius' students. From China; Three Keys to Ideal Behavior are Filial Piety, Humaneness, and Ritual Decorum. Gives advice to rulers.


Karma: In ancient india, the concept of ritual action, and that through correct ritual action, one can generate a substance called apurva. No ethical implications at this time. Gradually, karma extends itself to all action.


Anātman: "no self;" Buddhist belief that the human existence is a composite of causes and conditions and that there is no independently existent "soul." in contrast with the upanishadic view of "atman"; story of the chariot


Samhita: (narrow) collection of poems and hymes and other material necessary for conducting rituals, especially for sacrifice or (wide) the four vedas as collections of material. The Rg Veda Samhita (narrow) is the oldest layer of the Vedas. Those who followed the samhitas (narrow) thought life on earth was pretty good if you can talk to the gods


Bodhisattva: One whose being is enlightenment; one on the path to Buddhahood; starts with a vow; common to all forms of Buddhahood. The Historical Buddha made the bodhisattva vow.

Samsara (In Upanishads): The eternal cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Appeared as a series of funerals as opposed to a series of birthdays. Sramanas work to end samsara by achieving moksa via ascetic practices.


Edward Said: 1935 -2003; Palestinian-American literary theoretician; known for his book "Orientalism" which critically analyzed the western study of eastern cultures. Changed the way people thought about "orientalism" (not neutral anymore) Said, p. 3 "Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient."


Siddhartha Gautama: The historical Buddha. Lived from 566486 BCE/448-368 BCE in Northeastern India. Founder of Buddhism. Lived a life of luxury, renounced it and became enlightened. Discovered four noble truths.


Filial Piety: Being a good son; Model of relationships; Hierarchical, reciprocal, mutual, benefit, AFFECTION, love; Being a good son/brother makes one a good member of a community/state; Root of humaneness is filial piety (1.2); Home and public sphere bleed into each other; Cultivating virtue and good emotions; But feeling without doing is not good either; When father is alive, observe his intentions, when father dies, observe son's actions, and if the son does not change his father's ways for 3 years, then he is worthy to be called filial; Measures of identifying with father


Sramana: People who strive for moksa or someone who renounces ordinary life. Usually male, but some females. Minority within Vedic tradition, but not rejected, still considered important. One of the things the Buddha sees is a sramana.


Sruti: "That which is heard." Most sacred texts, such as the samhitas (narrow). Something that was accurately transmitted to humans by the divine. More sacred than Smrti (that which is remembered).


Tapas: Ascetic practices like celibacy, fasting, meditating, yoga (discipline) that aim to get one to moksa (end of samsara). Tapas cultivates Jnana