Essay on Ecology Notes

Submitted By Skeeterbug98
Words: 4316
Pages: 18

Notes Table Of Contents
Chapter 1; Intro to Ecology.................................................................................................................... Pg.2
1.1 Over view of Ecology ...............................................................................................................Pg.3
Chapter 2; Life on Land ........................................................................................................................Pg.3
Chapter 3; Life in The Water ................................................................................................................Pg.8
Chapter 4: Population Genetics and Natural Selection ........................................................................Pg.15
Chapter 5: Temperature Relations.........................................................................................................Pg.19

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Ecology Scientific research is important for what it teaches directly ( like in experiments, direct knowledge). But also, there is a stimulation of more studies ( to ask and answer more questions).

Figure 1.5 American Redstart Breeding /Winter Ground Study
Stable Isotope Analysis
Chemical elements (Periodic Table) have different atomic masses.
Proportions of isotopes vary across the environments and this is reflected in the body tissue of organisms. *Recent advantages in ecology take advantage of this variation, by examining body tissue, ecologists can determine food sources and habitat use.
Radioactive Decay: Half life element ; every, how every many years is that elements half life is, the element get cut in half and repeats. it will never reach "zero".
Researchers found that male redstart's that had spent the winter in the more productive mangrove habitat arrived earlier and produced significantly more young birds that survived to fledgling (leaving the nest).
Pg.6 Forest Canopy Research
Due to heavy rainfall, many rainforest soils are nutrient-poor.
*Nutrients stored in rainforest canopies are associated with epiphytes (plants such as orchids and ferns that grow a mat on tree branches).
Epiphytes: Mats that contain significant quantities of nutrients. Trees with send roots UP to the mats to access the nutrients they have. Figure 1.7 pg.7 Scientists using a crane to observe rainforest canopy (animals and habitats). This crane observation found: FILL IN HERE!!!!!

Climate and Ecological Change Pg.6
Many environmental changes occur on large spatial or temporal scales.
Davis monitored plant pollen deposited in lake sediments in the App. mountains
*Documented large temporal change to nearly plants communities.
12,000 yrs. ago they found spruce tree pollen for the first time. Pg. 8
8,000 yrs. ago they found the first beech tree pollen
2,000 yrs. ago they found chestnut tree pollen also.
The pollen from these three trees species continued until 1920 when there was a chestnut blight that killed most of the chestnut tree in the area. (blight is like a plague)
Pg.7 As climate changes, plant populations simultaneously change their geographic disruptions and undergo adaptations which increases their ability to survive new conditions.
Bradshaw and Holzapfel summarized several studies documenting evolutionary change in northern animals ranging from small mammals and birds to insects.

Ecology 1.1 Over view of Ecology
Ecology: Study of relationships between organisms and the environment.
Ecosystem: Includes all organisms living in an area, and the physical environment with which these organisms interact.
Biosphere: Highest level of ecological organization.
Biosphere > Region > Landscape > Ecosystem > Community > Interaction > Population > Individuals

Figure 1.3 The Ecology of Forest Birds: Old Tools and New.
MacArthur studied Ecology of five species of Warblers in North American spruce forest. * The theory for this study was that two species with identical requirements COULD NOT…