Climate change is a major factor in marine ecosystem destruction Climate change has been defined as changes to the atmosphere over decades to millions of years (Hunter, N. 2012). These changes can include anything from the changes in the humidity, rainfall, wind or the seasons (Washington State Department for Ecology, 2012). The climate we are living in plays a very important role in the formation of ecosystems, the growth of crops and the survival of all animals including human beings.
The climate has warmed by 1.2 of a degree (Global Greenhouse Warming, 2012). This has resulted in melting and shrinkage of the polar icecap in Antarctica, and rising of the world’s sea level. In 2012, the sea level has risen by 1cm. Predictions by 2100 are for sea level to rise by 20cm. Here in South Australia, in particular in Adelaide, there is a large amount of building on the sea front. Currently there is a project being conducted by the South Australian Governments planning division looking at how 3 council’s districts in the Adelaide metropolitan area in particular will be affected by the rising sea levels. Port Adelaide / Enfield, Charles Sturt and Onkaparinga councils are part of this planning and decisions are currently being made as to how this rise will be managed as a number of structures and the sea front will be effected (South Australian Government, 2012). As the climate gets hotter research suggests that humans are the largest contributors because of the release of greenhouse gases, and unburnt hydrocarbons caused by incomplete combustion. Governmental agencies have woken up to this and introduced a tax for industries to help and improve the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere and reduce the carbon foot print (Washington State Department for Ecology, 2012).
The El Nino affect, is part of the southern oscillation. The southern oscillation is the reversing air pressure, created between the eastern and western tropical pacific. The air pressure and ocean warming are simultaneous, scientist have called this the El Nimo effect (Netting, R. 2003).
The Great Barrier Reef is another Australian icon which is being affected by both