Sargon of Akkad- initiated program od conquest--- conquered cities of Sumer, established direct control over Mesopotamia--- and transformed Sumer and Akkad into first known empire.
Middle Kingdom- reestablishment of central government—pharaohs represented good shepherds—secured border with Nubia
Hatshepsut- woman pharaoh—launched military campaigns and extended trade and diplomacy—most ambitious builders of Egyptian history—new kingdom pharaoh
Khufu Ship- sealed into pit of Giza pyramid—built by Khufu (old kingdom pharaoh)
Hoplite- Greek soliders—heavy armor—main tactic was the phalanx formation
Marathon- Athenian victory over Persians—they had no help from Sparta
Plato- strove to vindicate Socrates—worked in his academy—wrote series of dialogues such as symposium (the republic, elements of benign tyranny) ???
Cosmopolis- Long distance migration and trade (spread east to central asia)—cities (imporatation of greek officials and soliders---Alexandria)—wealth and poverty (economic growth)????
Cuneiform- an early writing system that bean to develop in Mesopotamia in the 4th millennium B.C., by 3100 B.C. its distinctive markings were impressed on clay tablets using a wedge shaped stylus
Babylonian Empire- Hammurabi was ruler of Babylon--- used politics and writing as weapons—durable state
New Kingdom- invaded by Hyksos-- dissolved power of Pharaoh—imperial expansion—rise of aristocracy—Egypt reached height of power
Amenhotep IV- changed hieroglyphics--- noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten (monotheism)—undermined influence of Amon’s priests
Osiris- first pharaoh of Egypt and first god to hold kingship--- betrayed by brother Seth and killed—sister and wife picked up remains and reassembled pieces for mummification
Zoroastrianism- universal faith—taught by Zoroaster—religion common to all—supreme God—lead good life by performing acts of compassions and charity
Athens- capital of Greece--agriculture economy—government (Areopagus city council)—“Democratic”
Aristotle- student of Plato—established rules for syllogism—good conduct is rational conduct—preferred government of checks and balances rather than pure democracy—information about reality is gained by sensory experience
Lugal- “big man”, war leader, early dynastic period
Code of Hammurabi- legislation, business deals, public resources laws—282 laws—regulated commerce, resources, social interactions, and criminal laws
Pharaoh- ruler over Egypt—personification of Egypt
Imhotep- right –hand man to Djoser—learned medicine, theology,