Official name Arab Republic of Egypt
Independence 28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Geography: Climate: hot and dry most of the year.
Area 997,739 sq km - 385,229 sq mi (3% arable, 97% desert)
The Nile River: The longest river in the world - 6695 Km (4,187 miles)
It gets its name from the Greek word “Nelios” meaning River Valley. It flows through nine countries: the White Nile flows Uganda, Sudan and Egypt. The Blue Nile starts in Ethiopia and flows through Zaïre, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. It ist he only natural water source for the country.
Eastern Desert and Western Desert on both sides of the Nile river.
Qattara Depression -133 m below sea level
Highest altitude: Mount St. Catherine 2,629m (8625ft)
Other mountains: Mount Sinaï 2285m (7496ft) - Mount Nugrus 1504 m (4936ft).
Desertification, Periodic droughts; hot, driving sandstorms and dust storms called khamsin occurs in spring at a speed of 150km/hr. Agricultural land being lost to urbanization. Water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial waste.
Social Problems facing Egypt:
Overpopulation In 1798, 3 million when Napoleon invaded the country.
In 1993, 60 millions, in 1999, 62.2 millions, in 2004, 76,117,421 In 2006, 78,887,007. In 2016, 87.615. In 2029, est. 123 millions
(a newborn every 24 seconds)
An estimated half a million people live in Cairo's mausoleums cemeteries.
Unemployment over 23%
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): banned in 1996 but law is not enforced: It is an African traditional custom involving the removal of the girl’s clitoris by unprofesionnal practicitioners who usually mutilate the girl to avoid female immorality. In many cases, this practice leads to the girl’s death or mutilation.
It is believed that FGM is practised in more than 28 African countries. In the Arab world, it is practised in Egypt, Sudan, Oman, Yemen and the United Arab Emirates. An estimated 135 million of girls and women in the the world have suffered from this practice, and 2 million girls a year are at risk of being mutilated - about 6,000 per day.
Population: 82.562,036 (July 2013 est.) 99% of the population live in the Nile valley and delta on 3% of total land area
Population distribution: Urban 43 % (2001) Rural 57 % (2001)
Greater Cairo over 16 millions (the word Cairo,Qahira, in Arabic, means “victorious”.
Giza 5,779,000 Alexandria 3,891,000 Port Said 569,000 Suez 517,000
Arabs 95 % Bedouins 2% Berbers 1%
Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European 2 %
Languages Arabic (official); English and French widely understood by the educated
Religious affiliations: Islam is the state religion
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 88 % Coptic Christians, Jews and others 12 %
Total: 57.7 % (2003) Female 46.9 % Male 68.3 %
Youth literacy rate 73.2%
Prior to the 19th century, the Moslem ulama and Coptic clergy controlled Egypt's traditional education. The country's most important institutes were theological seminaries, but most mosques and churches--even in villages--operated basic schools where boys could learn to read and write Arabic, to do simple arithmetic, and to memorize passages from the Quran or Bible.
The Sorbonne University in Paris was founded in 1253, but Al-Azhar University was founded in 972. This is the oldest university and the leading institution of Islamic higher education in the world today. Al-Azhar University is the only Islamic authority that can issue official interpretations of the Qur’an.
FATWA in ISLAM:
A fatwa is a ruling issued by an Islamic religious leader with the expectation that it be followed by Muslims all over the country, hopefully all over the world. A…