Religion has changed for as long as man has been on earth, producing many different religions and beliefs. In today’s world most religions that are still in practice are monotheistic religions, meaning they worship only one god. Polytheistic religions can be traced back to ancient days; the worship of many gods was the order of the ancient days. Difference in people who practiced monotheistic religions and people that practiced polytheistic religions are very apparent throughout history. Polytheism doesn’t occur in many of the dominant modern religions which include Christianity, Islam and the like. One can tell a lot about societies by looking at their religion. Civilizations that have been polytheistic tend to have more violent with hash, less forgivable laws. For example the civilization of Egypt, Greece and ancient Mesopotamia that developed between two rivers , the Euphrates and Tigris, in the area of land known as the fertile crescent which occupies the modern countries Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, west and south western Iran and south eastern Turkey. Ancient Mesopotamia practiced the first known religion which was polytheistic. These gods were not like the loving and forgiven God we think of nowadays. These gods had quick and unchangeable temperament and moody often, often punishing people for no apparent reason. Because there were multiple gods all with different personalities, there was often conflict among them as they had many of the same bad traits that humans do. In reality the multiple gods in polytheistic religions were exactly like humans but only that they had the power to rule the earth. They resented the existence of humans and once they even sent a great flood to wipe out all man. This flood idea may sound may sound familiar but it was not because mankind was corrupt and evil as it is monotheistic versions but because humans were too noisy and annoyed the gods. So when one couldn’t trust their own gods to protect them how could lowly human beings be trusted? Because their gods were deceitful, people didn’t trust others to be good, so when crimes were committed, they punishment were very harsh as we can remember from the first written law by the Mesopotamia called the Hammurabi’s code. The most conversant part of this code was “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth”, if by accident you hurt someone that person was allowed revenge by doing the same to you. If you killed a woman, the father of that woman could kill your daughter;
Life center around religion
Valued their ancestral ties to present life
Polytheistic religion with many Gods
Monotheism religion with only one God
No good protection in landscaping from enemies
Protected by mountains, water, and desert.
Medical cures depended on magic
Used plants as pharmacy and developed medical techniques.
Both civilizations existed for three thousand years.
Polytheism, but Egypt did eventually move to a monotheistic culture.
Both had significant…
Queen Nefertiti, the most powerful woman in Egypt since the Pharaoh Hatshepsut 100 years earlier. She was as influential as she was beautiful, being a partner in power with her king and husband, Akhenaten. Together, the couple co-reigned over Egypt attempting to completely transform Egyptian religion.
Though little is known about Nefertiti’s early life, it is believed that she was born around 1390 B.C.E. in the royal city of Thebes. Some say she is of Egyptian blood while others believed her…
Religion and Non-Religion
The religious dimension in human history
-the expression of the religious dimension in human history
Tyler used ‘animism’ to describe the belief that a spirit or life force exists in every animate and inanimate object
Good and evil beliefs:
‘Good’ brings benefits such as health, social harmony and good hunting/gathering conditions
Evil spirits are believed responsible for sickness and disease or disastrous natural events
Animist ritual: the spirits might…
and filled with building modeled after those in Rome, he then named the city after himself, Constantinople, city of Constantine. Constantine also changed the ways of religion of Rome by making the persecuted belief of Christianity the official Roman religion. An emperor being able to name a city after himself, and change the religion of an empire, shows that the emperor has become Rome’s one absolute ruler and that the title of emperor has gained power over its time. Another significant political…
| |8000 – 600 CE |600 – 1450 CE |1450-1750 CE |1750 – 1914 CE |1914 - Present |
|Politics |Dynasties with emperors- mandate of |Japan borrowed from China |Fall of Ming from internal/external -|Abdication of Qing, unification of |Decolonization from Europe Nominally |
What is the Old Testament/ Hebrew Bible
Christian meaning: “A canon is the closed list of books that was officially accepted retrospectively by a community as supremely authoritative and binding for religious practice and doctrine” Flint and Vanderkam
Hebrew Bible aka TaNaKh
Torah books of moses (TA)
Nevi’im/ former prophets (NA)
Continue chronology of the Torah
Begin after Death of Moses (Joshua…
“el shaddai” it’s pural word used as a singular. This could suggest the trinity and also that they are making the transition from polytheism to monotheism .
o There is a female consort – asherah. There is a relationship between YHWH and this god
o Exodus show moses and the pharaoh’s snakes eating each other. Shows that at this point they are not completely monotheistic but just loyal to one mighty god.
o This Henotheism- one supreme but other gods. It’s a transition.…