Egypt, the state which is known for the ancient pyramids, sphinx in its vast desserts and oasis’s, remains in political turmoil even after the revolution in 2011 which caused the resignation of long time President Honsi Mubarak. The State of Egypt is one of political uncertainty and in serious economic troubles. The Arab Spring and the revolution caused the overthrow of the Mubarak regime that ran the State as a dictatorship for thirty years. During the revolution, many protests and rallies formed in the squares of Cairo and other cities in Egypt demanding change from the old ways. During this period, many people who rallied and affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood during the revolution were arrested and sentenced to jail for their crimes. (Hill and Mansour) In 1981 Honsi Mubarak became president after President Anwar El Sadat was assassinated. Mubarak was in office until the most recent revolution of 2011 leading to the new form of government and control known as the Muslim Brotherhood. Mubarak served as one of the world’s longest-serving presidents. Running Egypt as a dictatorship Mubarak did so with an iron hand. However, in doing so he kept most of Egypt’s people in poverty and created inequality amongst the people. Mubarak used the police to torture and punished anyone who held any type of resentment towards his regime. Under Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat, Mubarak served in various military post and was the deputy minister of war in Egypt from 1972 to 1975. In 1975, Mubarak became vice president. (Hosni) Immediately following Sadat’s assassination and becoming President, Mubarak re-imposed the Emergency Law. The Emergency law was established in 1958 and imposed during the 1967 Arab-Israeli War until 1980 under the regime of Sadat. The Emergency Law took away the rights of Egyptians citizens with regards to constitutional rights and allowed the government to tap phone lines, internet links and imprison individuals with no reason and without trials. Mubarak reenacted the Emergency Law claiming the need to do so to limit the influence of terrorist groups. However, during Mubarak’s 30-year reign he consistently extended the Emergency Law every three years. (Kapp, 2011) Many Egyptians wanted Egypt to be a democratic country and to be liberated and, therefore, questioned the merits of the Emergency Law. The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights even claimed in 2002 that the Emergency Law was “…determinate to the Egyptian Population.” (Kapp, 2011) During the Bush administration during 2004 and 2005, in an effort to create a democracy in the Middle East Mubarak made promises that there would be more open elections. However, the Muslim Brotherhood candidates won 20% of parliamentary seats in 2006 which caused Mubarak to come down heavy on the Muslim Brotherhood. When Mubarak’s opposing candidate Ayman Nour of the Tomorrow Party won more than 7% of the vote in the 2005 presidential election, Mubarak had Nour put in prison for three years, based on false charges. (Kapp, 2011) The election only had a small sampling of the Egyptian people come out to vote as many believed the elections were rigged. In 2005, President Hosni Mubarak promised various changes, which included repealing the Emergency Law; however, he did not live up to his promises, and he renewed the Emergency Law. (Kapp, 2011) The upsurge of the Egyptian people and the cause of the revolution were because they no longer wanted a ruler who violated the rights of individuals and wanted someone who respected Human Rights. (Saeda, 2011) As stated by Mr. Hafez Abu Saeda, chairman of the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights, on February 7, 2011 during an interview, 300 people had been killed, and 2000 injured during the demonstration. The people of Egypt are tired of the rigged elections, and people wanted Mubarak to leave the country and to allow for a new era of democracy to take place. (Saeda, 2011) The Emergency Law and the lack of
His Role on the 18th Dynasty of Egypt
Peter San Juan
Mr. Di Tomaso
April 4, 2014
Tutankhamen, son of former King, Akenhaten, inherited his power at the young age of nine. He had inherited a throne where his father ruled much more differently than a previous pharaoh, which is a large burden placed on a nine year old boy. Tutankhamen is mostly known by his tomb, which was found intact by archaeologist Howard Carter, but…
Abu Mena (Egypt)
By: Porsha Lee.
Instructor: Dr. Greta Bolin
Abu Mena was the name of a soldier who was an officer in the Diocletian army. Once Menas army won the war, he refused to kill any Christians, he declared his Christianity which made a tremendous motive for other Christians to bear the suffering and abuse from the Diocletian’s army ("Abu Mena-Unesco World Heritage Centre"…
civilizations have risen to the top and then fallen. Analyzing several of these civilizations such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, India, American, Hebrew, and Iranian between the time period 3500 BCE to 600 BCE conclusions can be made of how they rose to the top during their existence. When analyzing several of these early cultures they can be broken up into regions or what would be known as city like states today. Through examining these cities conclusions of what they contributed to future civilizations and…
Comparative Analysis Essay: Egypt and Mesopotamia
The rise of civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia occurred about the same time and both civilizations grew along the mighty rivers. There were so many similarities but many differences as well. In each case, it was the river valley and geography that dictated outcomes affecting agricultural prosperity, religious formation, and agricultural prosperity, government structures.
The first true civilizations in ancient times both formed near prominent…
Geography has affected regions and civilizations in many ways. The Nile river in Egypt improved and helped the economy in to grow in several ways. Just as the mountains in ancient Greece took part in the growth of the economy and nation as well.
The Nile River had a huge impact on the rise of Ancient Egypt. The Nile River is located in Africa which flows from Egypt and through the Mediterranean sea. It was known to be the longest river in the world, resulting in constant flooding. Many people…
Question two: which dynasty was he a part of?
Question three: why was he so famous?
Because he was the youngest king
Question four: what do you know about Tutankhamen?
He was eygyption
Question five: where did you get this information from?
Question six: how did Tutankhamen die?
Who was Tutankhamen?
* Sometime time around 1333 BC, a young boy named Tutankhamen came to the throne of Egypt, he ruled Egypt for 9 years.
* He inherited an Egypt that was returning to…
Many environmental or geographic factors contribute to the expansion and the development of the United States, some more than others. For example the Gold Rush of 1849. Gold was discovered in the in California that was relatively easy to get. At first everyone thought that is was rumor but when President James Polk confirmed the rumors people from all over the U.S. made the journey(Idaho State University, Gold Rush: Fever ,N.D). This caused the poorly developed west to have a rush of people populate…
dominant city-state at the time of the Macedonian conquest of Greece. During the Byzantine period, the city was famous for its silks.
Ahmose I was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, King Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven…
establishing an Islamic state in Palestine
• Hezbollah: organization of militant Shiite Muslims based in Lebanon
• Yitzhak Rabin: the first native-born prime minister of Israel, as credited with Israel's military success in the Six Day War .
• Camp David Accords: the US president's retreat in the Appalachian Mountains, Maryland: scene of the Camp David Agreement(Sept., 1978) between Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel, mediated by Jimmy Carter, which outlined a framework…
World Regional Geography
Tues & Thurs
Egypt, the Capital of Africa
Nationality is a character’s legal relationship between a person and state or country.
Typically, nationality protects the person by the state or country. Each nation differs from one
another. Countries have limited rights and guidelines to determine which of their residents will
be their nationals. Generally, you obtain a nationality by birth within a particular country, or by
inheritance from one or both parents…