Based on the assumptions of this theory, ego defenses operate as a way of helping us cope with anxiety. Identify two of the ego-defense mechanisms and give an example of how someone might utilize them to cope with anxiety (put this in your own words). How is an understanding of the functioning of ego defenses useful to the counselor?
Psychoanalytic psychology has influenced every form of psychological methodology that has followed in its wake. Subsequently, psychology methods or theories have either enhanced and modified this theory, or have been a response to, or in other words, in contrast to it. Freud is the father of psychoanalytic psychology. The basics of this theory are: the idea of an unconscious mind which effects behavior, an understanding of the psychic energy forces and how they determine the personality, and the formulation of the first therapeutic procedures with the intent to not only understand one’s character, but to bring about foundational changes and modifications to one’s character (Corey, 2013).
In terms of the concept of human nature, Freud felt human nature was deterministic, and was made up of irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological and instinctual drives—including life instincts and death instincts.
Central to the Freudian approach is the concept that individuals are energy systems. Freud felt an individual’s personality was determined by the interplay of three components within this psychic energy-based system: the Id, the ego and the super ego.
While Freud’s theories focus on how beliefs, emotional injuries, and significant experiences occurring in childhood effect one’s future life, Carl Jung’s focus centered around the nature of development in the middle-age of our lives. It is the middle age in an individual’s life where the lion share of Jung’s theoretical emphasis was placed—more specifically the psychological changes and growth that can occur when values and behaviors used to guide our early life are let go of as as individual seeks to venture into new territory and confront their unconscious mind in an effort to become more whole.
Furthermore, Freud and Jung differed on the nature and effect of sexual desires.
It was Freud’s belief that the foundational driving force behind men and women’s activities was due to repressed or expressed sexuality. In addition, Freud postulated that unfulfilled sexuality led to pathological conditions. In contrast,
Jung believed that sexual desire constituted only one of the many factors that drove human behavior. In Jung’s mind, he felt this strength of the sexual drive shifted as individuals grew older, and the desire to achieve individuation or wholeness became fully dilated or actualized.
Another major difference between Freud and Jung is found in their view of religions. Freud was an atheist who felt religion was an “opiate for the masses”.
Jung, on the other hand, was the son of a pastor, and felt that spirituality was an important part of the human experience. Jung used religious and spiritual thought to inform the development of analytical psychology. He studied all the major religions of the world, as well as many occult beliefs. In fact, Jung’s theories were influenced by history, anthropology, mythology as well as religion.
In addition, Freud and Jung disagreed on what constituted the unconscious.
Freud viewed neuroses as stemming from the unconscious collection of images, thoughts, and experiences that an individual was unwilling to process. He felt the unconscious was also a type of container for the psyche that held all repressed sexual desires and led to pathological or mental illness. Jung felt that an individual could begin to unlock the unconscious mind through dream interpretation and creative activities such as writing, drawing, or painting, with the ultimate goal for such exercises to give voice to