Your score was 27. The range of possible scores is from 7 to 35 (low perspective taking: 7-15; moderate perspective taking: 16-25; high perspective taking: 26-35). Your score indicates high perspective taking (26-35). The average score in recent studies across several Canadian and U.S. groups of people is approximately 20. Also, keep in mind that women tend to score about 1.5 points higher than men on this perspective-taking scale.
Now you will analyze your responses to each item that evaluates your ability to understand the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others. You will also see examples of how perspective-taking skills are used by others. In each statement below, your score is indicated in the scale from the lowest perspective taking (a "1" under "Does NOT describe me well") to the highest perspective taking (a "5" under
"Describes me well"). This same rating system also applies to all of the other statements in this self-assessment.
YOUR INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES FOR PERSPECTIVE-TAKING
Before criticizing somebody, I try to imagine how I would feel if I were in his/her place.
Your choice: 5
Sometimes referred to as "the original self-improvement book," Dale Carnegie's How to Win Friends and Influence People has remained a best-seller for nearly 70 years, sold more than 45 million copies, and been translated into almost every known written language. Although critics of the book claim that it is more inspirational than intellectual, Carnegie and a hired researcher did spend 18 months reading everything they could find about successful people, including over 100 biographies of the 32nd President of the United States,
Franklin D. Roosevelt (http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/fr32.html).
In addition, Carnegie interviewed many individuals who had achieved a great measure of success in life, including Nobel Prize
Laureate, Guglielmo Marconi (http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1909/marconi-bio.html), Franklin D. Roosevelt, and actor, Clark
Carnegie's book is divided into four sections, (1) Fundamental techniques in handling people, (2) Six ways to make people like you, (3)
How to win people to your way of thinking, and (4) How to change people without giving offense or arousing resentment. The book is based on down-to-earth and simply illustrated principles, using anecdotes of historical figures, leaders of the business world, and everyday folks. A principle emphasized throughout the book is to focus on the other person's point of view in all communication situations. In Part Four, he offers nine principles that relate to how to criticize another person from the criticized one's perspective--principles that if practiced would, no doubt, improve an individual's perspective-taking skills:
Begin with praise and honest appreciation.
Call attention to people's mistakes indirectly.
Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the other person.
Ask questions instead of giving direct orders.
Let the other person save face.
Praise the slightest improvement and praise every improvement. Be "hearty in your approbation and lavish in your praise."
Give the other person a fine reputation to live up to.
Use encouragement. Make the fault seem easy to correct.
Make the other person happy about doing the thing you suggest. (1)
Although few people in the 21st century would agree with every guideline the author wrote in 1936, the book continues to be popular because of its ability to offer its readers many timeless truths about improving their communication skills and interpersonal relationships.
The author obviously realized that perspective-taking plays a major role in helping individuals to win friends and influence people.
If I'm sure I'm right about something, I don't waste much time listening to other people's arguments.
Your choice: 1
Dell Inc.'s Chairman of the Board and CEO Michael Dell is worth $17…