February 20, 2015
“Endangered Species Act”
Go Deep Report I In 1973, Congress enacted “The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA)”, one of the crucial conservation laws ever enacted, which help prevent the extinction of many species of fish, wildlife, and plants. The purpose of the ESA is to protect the endangered species, threatened species and critical habitat from further destruction by implementing key rules and guideline which would prevent interference in the species habitat, its resources and rehabilitate the species population to a specific size where they can sustain themselves. To enforce the rule and the guidelines the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) with cooperation with the National Marine Fisheries service (NFMS), other federal and local agencies monitored the ESA process and completion. The taxonomic designation of an organism can have significant economic and social impact. In order for a species to get on the Endangered Species act of 1973, they must get added to the Federal list of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife and Plants beforehand. The species are listed under one of the two categories either Threatened or Endangered. Threatened species refers to a species that will become endangered in the possible future and endangered species refers to a species that are in danger of becoming extinct though a significant portion of its range. The Federal list of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife and Plant includes all the possible species of mammal, birds, fishes, reptiles, plant, insect, amphibians, and other creatures that been determined to be need of federal and local protection from becoming extinct or in the process of becoming extinct ( Endangered Species Act).
A species can get under protection two ways by a public petition or the candidate assessment process (Candidate Conservation). In order for a species to get on the ESA list depended on many factors such species habitat degraded or destroyed, species over consumed for food, research, or recreational use, threaten by disease or predator, current regulation, inadequate protecting the species, or man-made cause that could threaten the survival of the species in the long term (Endangered Species Act). If scientific research and study show that one or more of the cause are affecting a species than the species is offer protection under the ESA.
The next step involves publishing article in the Federal Register, nominating a species and “Candidates” for the ESA with biological finding of the species. In the Federal Register there are many species listed for possible, ESA protection and using priority numbering system 1-12, one being highest priority follow by immediate threat or taxonomic uniqueness of a species is how species are chosen from the numerous nomination (Candidate Conservation). Another way to nominate a species is by public petition in which the petition is supported by biological data, which indicated species need of protection. The ESA committee reviews the petition and its biological data from NMFS in which within a year decides if the finding is positive or negative for a species. If the finding are positive, then the species is listed under the ESA protection, but if the finding are negative then it is added to the “Candidate” list for possible future extinction (Candidate Conservation). The ESA does not look at the popularity of a species over another species when determining a species for ESA protection.
According to the Endangered Species Act, if a species is listed under the act it is then protected by the federal and local law and regulation from being take, used for trade or profit, used for commercial or recreational purpose, and destruction of their critical habitat and resource for survival (Listing and Critical Habitat Overview). According to the FWS, take is defined as” harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in