Pituitary Gland releases 9 hormones
Anterior lobe hormones:
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone – MSH – increases melanin production in melanocytes in skin.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone – ACTH – increases release of steroid hormones from adrenal cortex, especially glucocorticoids, which effect glucose metabolism in cells.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone – triggers release of thyroid hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone – FSH – stimulates estrogen release in females
Leutinizing Hormones – LH – induces ovulation, promotes secretion of progesterone, increases testosterone production in men
Prolactin – increases breast milk production and mammory gland development
Growth Hormone – hGH – stimulates cell growth and reproduction by accelerating rate of protein synthesis.
Posterior lobe hormones released:
Oxytocin – OXT – stimulates smooth muscle contraction in uterine wall promoting labor and delivery.
Antidiuretic hormone – ADH – act on kidneys to retain urine and increase water retention. In high concentrations ADH acts as a vasoconstrictor. Alcohol inhibits ADH, causing frequent urination.
T3 and T4 Hormones – create a calorigenic effect, increase mitochondrial ATP production.
Calcitonin – CT – regulates Ca2+ concentrations in body fluids. CT inhibits osteoclasts from releasing Ca2+ and increases Ca2+ excretion by the kidneys
Parathyroid Hormone – Increases Ca2+ concentration in body fluids by: mobilizing calcium from bone by effecting osteoclast and osteoblast activity, enhances reabsorption of Ca2+, and increasing kidney secretion of calcitriol which increases PO3 and Ca2 absorption in digestive tract.
Zona Glomerulus produces aldosterone, which increases conservation of sodium ions and elimination of potassium ions.
Zona Fasciculata – produces steroid hormones glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol and corticosterone. Glucocorticoids speed up rates of glucose synthesis and glycogen formation, especially in the liver.