endocrine glands Essay

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Mike Cooper
Endocrine HW
Pituitary Gland releases 9 hormones
Anterior lobe hormones:
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone – MSH – increases melanin production in melanocytes in skin.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone – ACTH – increases release of steroid hormones from adrenal cortex, especially glucocorticoids, which effect glucose metabolism in cells.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone – triggers release of thyroid hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone – FSH – stimulates estrogen release in females
Leutinizing Hormones – LH – induces ovulation, promotes secretion of progesterone, increases testosterone production in men
Prolactin – increases breast milk production and mammory gland development
Growth Hormone – hGH – stimulates cell growth and reproduction by accelerating rate of protein synthesis.
Posterior lobe hormones released:
Oxytocin – OXT – stimulates smooth muscle contraction in uterine wall promoting labor and delivery.
Antidiuretic hormone – ADH – act on kidneys to retain urine and increase water retention. In high concentrations ADH acts as a vasoconstrictor. Alcohol inhibits ADH, causing frequent urination.
Thyroid gland
T3 and T4 Hormones – create a calorigenic effect, increase mitochondrial ATP production.
Calcitonin – CT – regulates Ca2+ concentrations in body fluids. CT inhibits osteoclasts from releasing Ca2+ and increases Ca2+ excretion by the kidneys
Parathyroid gland
Parathyroid Hormone – Increases Ca2+ concentration in body fluids by: mobilizing calcium from bone by effecting osteoclast and osteoblast activity, enhances reabsorption of Ca2+, and increasing kidney secretion of calcitriol which increases PO3 and Ca2 absorption in digestive tract.

Adrenal Gland
Adrenal Cortex:
Zona Glomerulus produces aldosterone, which increases conservation of sodium ions and elimination of potassium ions.
Zona Fasciculata – produces steroid hormones glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol and corticosterone. Glucocorticoids speed up rates of glucose synthesis and glycogen formation, especially in the liver.