A) Pineal gland – secretes melatonin and its role is to regulate the body’s circadian rhythm (the usual fluctuation of physiology over the day-night cycle) (Norris and Siegfried 2011), body temperature, cardiovascular function, and reproduction (Springhouse 2009).
B) Posterior pituitary gland (PPG) – releases hormones which are synthesized in the nerve cell bodies of the hypothalamus. Antidiuretic hormone targets the kidney cells and changes the cells metabolism. More water is ejected from urine so that the kidney produces and is added to the blood. Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions (Norris and Siegfried 2011).
C) Anterior pituitary gland (APG) – secretes following: melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), this stimulates the production of melanin pigment which protects the skin from sunlight damage; prolactin which is in charge for the increase in the size of the lactiferous glands in the breast and milk production; gonadotropic hormones of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) which target the ovaries and testes and adrenocorticotropico hormone (ACTH) which targets the cortex of the adrenal glands. The primary role of these pituitary hormones is to stimulate the discharge of other hormones for their target glands. Growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are also messengers that act to stimulate target glands (Norris and Siegfried 2011).
D) Thyroid gland – has two lateral lobes, which function as one component to produce the hormones triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin. T3 and T4 are known as thyroid hormone which controls the metabolism by accelerating cellular respiration (Springhouse 2009).
E) Parathyroid gland – secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) which has the role to control the blood’s calcium balance. PTH alters the rate at which magnesium and a calcium ion are misplaced in urine and also increases the movement of phosphate ions to the blood from urine for excretion (Springhouse 2009).
F) Thymus – produces T cells which are essential is cell mediated immunity. The