During the 17th century, philosophers and scientists of the Enlightenment era began to elaborate a new vision of the earth and universe because of new spirits of curiosity, findings of new species of animals and vegetables, and increased sense of exploration in all genres. These people started communicating with each other which allowed progress in spreading information in Europe. Some key thoughts of philosophers were the new ideas about power, authority, governance, and law which sparked reform in the political structure and more constitutions. Two well known political philosophers were Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. They had different views of politics, the citizen’s role in society, human rights, and how they promoted the ideas of Nationalism which is how they impacted the world. Their ideas conflicted each other which drew different opinions from the noble and common. Thomas Hobbes was an English political philosopher who supported royal absolutism. He believed that people are usually in conflict with each other and have difficult lives. This causes people to trade their freedom to a ruler in order for the ruler to maintain law and order with absolute power. The citizen's role is to enter a social contract which they exchange their freedom and some of their rights for security. However, he thought that power is from the people. He promoted his beliefs through a book named Leviathan. English philosopher John Locke discovered the natural laws of politics. Locke believed that a baby's mind is a tabula rasa (blank tablet) They baby will have his or her traits and personality developed depending on the surrounding. Therefore, Locke believed that our surroundings should show political freedom in order to develop a productive person. At this time, England had absolute monarchy which held tight centralized government functions. Locke believed that all humans all had their certain natural right to life, liberty, and property which is what divine right theories didn't support; it supported absolute monarchy and advocated constitutional government on the grounds that sovereignty resides in the people rather than the state or its rulers. Many colonists of England were inspired by this philosophy and later on rebelled against England and set up their own government which turned England from monarchy to nationalism. He promoted his beliefs in his writing named Two Treatises of Government. Thomas Hobbes' philosophies gained less support than John Locke's philosophies because of their differences. Thomas
Enlightenment was a period of time between early 17th century and the late 18th
century, where individualism meaning not relying on others and having freedom
mattered more than traditions meaning religions. It spread through Europe and all the
way to the United States. The purpose of Enlightenment was to take religion out of
society and to advance scientific knowledge. It was influenced by great philosophers…
Modern Political Ideologies
Liberalism was created to be the first distinguishing political ideology to over-run religious conformity and ascribed status in European medieval society. These ideals accentuated the notion of freedom and personal liberty as the drive of government. The central idea of liberalism relies on the belief that human beings are balanced and self-interested and are capable of determining what is best for themselves. Throughout history liberalism…
Brooklynn Ruggieri, Leni Mundt, and Sarah Duchano
Ch.14: Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment
Overview of the Age: Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Europe went through a drastic
change in thought, namely science, mathematics, and philosophy. Perspective and view of the
universe changed scientifically; the individual’s place in society was altered. Religion took the
back seat to science and philosophy. The church became much less significant to certain
monarchs, individuals, and states…
influential philosopher, Locke’s writings would have a significant impact on western culture and philosophy. John Locke was born in the village of Wrington Somerset in England and attended the Westminster School, Christ Church, and studied medicine at the University of Oxford. His education and experiences at Oxford would play a significant role in his life as well as his teachings in epistemology, political philosophy, and education as cited by Bookman (1994).
Locke' wrote the Two Treatises of Government…
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots: Scottis Enlightenment) was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By 1750, Scots were among the most literate citizens of Europe, with an estimated 75% level of literacy. The culture was oriented to books, and intense discussions took place daily at such intellectual gathering places in Edinburgh as The Select Society and, later, The Poker Club as well as within…
Baron de Montesquieu
● Born January 18, 1689 and died February 10, 1755
● He got his name and job from his uncle when he died.
● His philosophy of history had minimized the roles of individual
people and events.
● He is credited to be with the first to extend methods of classification
to the political forms in the human society.
● He was born into nobility but was in the care of a poor family during
● Believed that all things were made up of rules or laws that never
Some of the famous philosophers who wrote works on their social and political philosophies were Thomas Hobbes, Baron de Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke. These political philosophers each had unique views of the human race and how it should be disciplined to create the best society. These philosophers not only profoundly influenced European views and history, but also that of America, where…
• An increase in trade and commerce led to growth of towns and cities
Humanism – scholars who studied ancient Greek and Roman texts and then tried to recreate the spirit of classical arts, literature, and philosophy.
Secular – non-religious.
Patricians -the social group that was a at the top of the social class system of Renaissance Italy.
Patrons - wealthy people who supported the arts by giving artists money so that the artist could focus on his/her…
The U.S. Constitution and its Bill of Rights
The Enlightenment and Political Philosophy
To understand the philosophical principles behind the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, and how these principles influence the structure and process of government.
The United States, as a nation, was born of the American Revolution of 1776. This revolution cut the political ties between England and its American colonies. Many "Americans" living…
a second, possibly more important source of the man-as-killer myth in the philosophy of the Enlightenment — Thomas Hobbes's depiction of the state of nature as a "warre of all against all", and the reactionary naturism of Rousseau and the post-Enlightenment Romantics. Today these originally opposing worldviews have become fused into a view of nature and humanity that combines the worst (and least factual) of both.
Hobbes, writing a rationalization of the system of absolute monarchy under the Stuart…