In order for the United States to change their habits in using fossil fuel and oil it is the role and responsibilities of government, businesses, and individuals to change this habit. The government role is to be responsible for funding research for clean energy, put a limit on appliances, administrate more well-organized land use judgments, offer better municipal transportation choices, and educate society on efficiency and conservation options. Also the government can set up policy that can manipulate corporation and consumer behavior. “The U.S. government should set up policy that uses incentive such as taxes, subsidies and regulations to guide energy choices” (Past Topic Report: Aspen Institute). Many environmentalists support the idea that government should tax on high gasoline prices in order to encourage people to drive smaller cars. With revenue from the tax, the government can use it to support research and development in renewable energy technologies (Past Topic Report: Aspen Institute).
Many environmentalists view that free market should increase price of oil forcing consumer to find alternative energy source. If business and consumer changed the demand for fossil fuel and require a new technology that uses less oil, the free market would provide the essential incentive for the action on energy proficiency and conservation. Some view that big companies cannot conserve energy because this will affect their productivity and decrease in profit. Small businesses, however would figure out ways to make a profit by producing energy efficiency and conserving which would attract consumers Past Topic Report: Aspen Institute).
On the other hand many people believe that the government should only a play minor role in energy control and allow the market to guide the business and consumer behavior. For example if gas and oil supplies are inadequate this will change the consumer and producer to change their habits. They will be forced to conserve, change the fuel system, and make new technological innovation. The United States is the number one consumer of oil and gas then other countries. “The U.S. produces about 9% of the world’s oil but uses 25% of global oil production, and has only 2% of the world’s reserves. In 2007, the United States imported 60%of its oil at a cost of 1.15 billion dollars a day” (Miller, and Spoolman 284). The oil and gas industries such as Shell, BP, and Exxon Mobile are the third major set of player in the energy industry. Several environmental people advocate that the oil and gas industries are the most important factors for the change in energy. Oil and gas industries have the wealth to create a sophisticated technology, and political and market shrewdness. Several contributors suggest that oil companies have begun to represent themselves as “energy companies in the broadest sense, rather than more narrowly as oil companies” (Past Topic Report: Aspen Institute). Some of the major businesses are trying to diversify their development technology into better energy efficiency such as solar and wind technology (Past Topic Report: Aspen Institute).
However, several people believe that’s the motivation and the ability of the oil and gas industries to change their views on energy efficiency would be hard to change. Various oil and gas companies believe “have large vested interests in the longevity of the current energy system and have