Environmental Impact Assessment

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1.1 Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment is a systematic examination conducted to determine whether or not a programme, activity or project will have any adverse impacts on the environment .

Conducting EIA is part of implementation of the Rio Declaration on environment and development of 1992. Principle 17 of The Rio declaration states that, EIA as a national instrument shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority.

The first major EIA to be undertaken in Tanzania was in 1980 for the Stiegeler‟s Gorge Power and Flood Control Project. According to the report of the Controller
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From the table above, it is indicated that oil and gas in Tanzania is expanding leading a total of 71 project was registered by NEMC from year 2010-2015.
1.2 Key Principles Guiding EIA Activities in Tanzania
According to NEMC’s EIA training manual the following are the key principles guiding EIA activities in Tanzania
i. Continuity
As an integral part of planning, designing and implementation cycle of any development initiative, EIA should run continuously and throughout project cycle. ii. Participatory
EIA provides a framework for stakeholders and all interested parties to participate in decision-making. iii. Transparency EIA facilitates dialogue, predictions and responses in a forum where proponents, decision-makers, experts and the public interact in an open and accessible way in considering the potential impacts of a project on local community, natural resources and environmental quality. All assessment decisions and their basis should be open and accessible.
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Improves accountability and transparency in planning and decision-making process. ix. For business and governments – EIA is an important planning and management tool in the pursuit of sustainable development by integrating environmental factors, public concerns and community values early in the decision-making process.
x. Environmental assessments, large or small, formal or informal empower decision-makers to make practical, responsible and informed choices. xi. Good environmental assessment is good management and good management is good business. xii. Good business:
 Serves time and money in the long run;
 Facilitates investment; and
 Keeps business and government in touch and improves community relations; xiii. Reduces environmental threats to humans and ecosystems; and xiv. Leads to responsible decisions to sustain and enhance the value of environment for present and future generations.

1.2 Prohibited Activities to Investors
Investors are prohibited from:
i. Implementing projects that have negative impacts to investors. ii. Implementing projects that are required by EMA 2004, its regulations or any other written law unless an environmental impact assessment has been concluded and approved.
1.3 Prohibited Activities to licensing