Environmental Pollution Essays

Submitted By mr_free
Words: 978
Pages: 4

Environmental Pollution and
Waste: Air, Water, and Land
Media
Environmental Sustainability Educational Resources prepared by
Gregory A. Keoleian
Associate Research Scientist,
School of Natural Resources and Environment
Co-Director, Center for Sustainable Systems
University of Michigan

1

Contents










Air Pollution Impacts
[slide 4]
Sources of Air Toxics
[slide 5-6]
Criteria Air Pollutants
[slide 7-9]
Trends in National Emissions of Criteria Pollutants
[slide 10]
Comparison of 1970 and 1999 Emissions
[slide 11-12]
Comparison of Growth in Population, VMT, GNP with
Emissions
[slide 13]
Percent Change in Air Quality
[slide 14]
Number of People Living in Nonattainment Areas[slide 15]
2












Trends in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions
[slides 16]
Water Pollution
[slides 17- 18]
Sources of Point and Nonpoint Source Pollution [slide 19-22]
Water Quality of Assessed Rivers, Lakes and Estuaries
[slide 23]
Pollutants and Sources Causing Impairments of Assessed Rivers,
Lakes and Estuaries
[slide 24]
Toxic Release Inventory
[slide 25-28]
TRI data
[slides 29-31]
Industrial Waste
[slides 32-33]
Municipal Solid Waste
[slide 34-35]
Additional Resources
[slide 36-37]
3

Air pollutant impacts








Greenhouse effect
Ozone depletion acidification smog formation eutrophication human health ecosystem health
4

5

6

Criteria Air Pollutants
• EPA uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality
• EPA established for each of them a maximum concentration above which adverse effects on human health may occur.

7

Criteria air pollutants
• Nitrogen Dioxide: NO2
– brownish gas irritates the respiratory system originates from combustion (N2 in air is oxidized); NOx sum of NO, NO2, other oxides of N

• Ozone: ground level O3
– primary constituent of urban smog
– reaction of VOC + NOx in presence of heat +sun light

• Carbon monoxide: CO
– reduces bloods ability to carry O2
– product of incomplete combustion
8

• Lead: Pb
– cause learning disabilities in children , toxic to liver, kidney, blood forming organs
– tetraethyl lead – anti knock agent in gasoline
• leaded gasoline has been phased out

• Particulate Matter: PM10 (PM 2.5)
– respiratory disorders

• Sulfur Dioxide: SO2
– formed when fuel (coal, oil) containing S is burned and metal smelting
– precursor to acid rain along with NOx
9

10

Comparison of 1970 and 1999 Emissions

11

12

13

14

Number of People Living in Counties with
Air Quality Concentrations Above the Level of the NAAQS in 1999

15

Trends in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Following
Implementation of Phase I of the Acid Rain Program:
Total State-level Utility SO2 (1980, 1990, 1999)

16

Water Pollution
• Based on current water quality standards, over
70 percent of our rivers, 68 percent of our estuaries and 60 percent of our lakes now meet legislatively mandated goals.
• Some of the risks include
– pollutant runoff from agricultural lands
– stormwater flows from cities
• About 40,000 times each year, sanitary sewers overflow and release raw sewage to streets and waterbodies.
17

Water Pollution
– seepage into ground water from nonpoint sources – the loss of habitats such as wetlands.
– we cannot always eat what we catch because fish flesh is contaminated by the remaining discharges and sources of toxic substances.
– Microbial contamination of drinking water still presents problems in many communities.
18

Pollution Sources
• Point sources are direct discharges to a single point;
– examples include discharges from sewage treatment plants, injection wells,and some industrial sources.

19

Pollution Sources
• Non-point sources are diffused across a broad area and their contamination cannot be traced to a single discharge point.
– Examples include runoff of excess fertilizers,
herbicides,…