EOC Review Part 1 Units 1 3 Essay

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EOC REVIEW Part I (1860-1900)

Civil War & Reconstruction
Industrial Revolution &

The Civil War & Reconstruction
Cause/Effects of War
Abolition Movement
Major Battles
Postwar Reconstruction Plans

Civil War and Reconstruction

1. Compare North and

◦ North: industrial, used immigrants for labor, very populated
◦ South: agricultural, depended on slaves for labor, less population

Rights (South) v.
Federalism (North)
Representation in Congress

2. What were the factors and events that led to the Civil War? o Background: Missouri Compromise
 slavery prohibited in northern part of Louisiana
 Maine enters as free state / Missouri as slave state  Preserves balance (free/slave) but beginning of sectional conflict that would lead to war

A. Compromise of 1850
 California enters as free state
 Popular sovereignty used to decide slavery in
Utah and New Mexico
 Fugitive Slave Act

Factors and Events (cont.)
B. Abolition Movement: the social movement to end slavery (Harriet Tubman, Underground RR, Fredrick
Douglass; Harriet Beecher Stowe)
C. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
 Popular sovereignty to decide slavery

Bleeding Kansas (1856)
 Conflict arises when pro and anti slavery factions rush into
Kansas to vote
 Popular sovereignty is not working
 Republican Party is formed in 1854

D. Dred Scott Case (1857)
 Supreme Court rules that slaves cannot be citizens and are property of their owners

Factors and Events (cont.)
E. Election of 1860
 Republican Abe Lincoln wins (slavery must not be allowed in new territories); causes southern states to consider leaving the union F. Secessionist Movement (1861)
 South Carolina secedes before Lincoln takes office (6 other southern states follow) **Civil War Begins
 Confederate forces fire on Ft. Sumter and the Civil War begins

3. Describe the Civil War- Military
Strengths and Weaknesses

 Big

population advantage

 22 million people
 9 million in South (including
3.5 million slaves)
 Industrialized

 Manufacturing
 Railroads
 Immigrants

 Helped fight and manufacture supplies

 Psychological

edge as they were fighting for their way of life
 Better prepared for fighting  General Lee was brilliant
 Southerners were ready to fight
 Only

had to avoid defeat 3. Military Strategies(cont.) o Anaconda


 North tried to station troops along Mississippi River (cutting South in half)
 Also controlled ports with navy
 Tried to “strangle” the South by shutting off all supply routes


Turning Points of the War:

 Battle

of Vicksburg: Union victory that gave them control of the

Mississippi River

o Battle

of Gettysburg

 3-day battle that ended in a Confederate retreat (Gen. Lee lost 1/3 of his men)  Last battle fought on Union soil
 Turning point of the war
 Gettysburg Address – Lincoln’s speech that reaffirmed the vales of the
United States and its ability to endure

5. Describe the course of the Civil War o Life

During War

 Draft in North triggers rioting (possible to pay way out of draft)
 Blockade hurt South- starving
 Many soldiers died from wounds (little knowledge of infections)  Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation
(decree freeing enslaved people in rebellious states after 1863) in an attempt to convince South to surrender  Many enslaved people tried to help Union (provide food for Union troops, give Union help with terrain,…)
 54th Massachusetts – all black regiment who fought for the Union

What were the effects of the Civil War on
American society?
6. Effects on Economy
North – Booming economy
South – depression
- Effects on the Constitution
 13th Amendment – abolished slavery
 14th Amendment – guaranteed equality for all citizens of the
 15th Amendment – voting rights guaranteed (to men)

7. Reconstruction- unite the North and South
 Lincoln & Johnson wanted to restore political status of southern states quickly