2. Research and analyse the areas of Cardiovascular disease and Cancer using the research scaffold provided.
Analysis areas for Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
The nature of the problem
The major cardiovascular conditions are coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. One of the major contributing factors to cardiovascular disease is a build-up of fatty tissue (called atherosclerosis) on the inside lining of the arteries. This build-up interferes with the supply of blood around the body. It is most serious when it leads to a reduced or blocked blood supply to the heart (causing angina or heart attack) or to the brain (causing a stroke). Cardiovascular disease continues to be one of the biggest health problems requiring attention in Australia.
Extent of the problem
Cardio vascular disease is the second leading cause of disease in Australia and therefor a major cause of morbidity. In 2005 35% of all deaths were caused by CVD. Between 1907 and 2007 there were a greater number of males who died from CVD than females. In 1970 both coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease death rates decrease for both men and women. Heart attack numbers are falling and the survival rate in increasing. On an overall incidence rates of major coronary events among 40–90 year olds have declined by almost 40% between 1994 and 2009.
Risk factors that effect CVD include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight or obesity, a high fat diet or alcohol abuse, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, poor nutrition and diabetes. Unmodifiable factors include age, gender and heredity.
Some protective factors linked to CVD are to quit smoking and avoid exposure to tobacco smoke, maintain healthy levels of blood pressure and blood cholesterol, consumption of a healthy diet, maintenance of a healthy weight, and be physically active.
Sociocultural, socioeconomic and environmental determinants
Socio-economically disadvantaged people are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease. The risk of cardiovascular disease for women of low socio-economic status is twice that of women from a higher socio-economic status. This is due to people with a low socio economic status taking part in more risk taking