Epithelium and Connective Tissue Essay

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241 2-1 Lecture Notes

4: Tissue: The Living Fabric-the underlined objectives you need to know well. The others you shoulod be able to speak intelligently to.

Objectives
Preparing Human Tissue for Microscopy 1. List the steps involved in preparing animal tissue for microscopic viewing.
Epithelial Tissue 2. List several structural and functional characteristics of epithelial tissue. 3. Name, classify, and describe the various types of epithelia, and indicate their chief function(s) and location(s). 4. Define gland. 5. Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands, and between multicellular and unicellular glands. 6. Describe how multicellular exocrine glands are classified structurally and functionally.
Connective Tissue 7. Indicate common characteristics of connective tissue, and list and describe its structural elements. 8. Describe the types of connective tissue found in the body, and indiate their characteritic functions.
Nervous Tissue 9. Indicate the general characteristics of nervous tissue.
Muscle Tissue 10. Compare and contrast the structures and body locations of the three types of muscle tissue.
Covering and Lining Membranes 11. Describe the structure and function of cutaneous, mucous, and serous membranes.
Tissue Repair 12. Outline the process of tissue repair involved in normal healing of a superficial wound.
Developmental Aspects of Tissues 13. Indicate the embryonic origin of each tissue class. 14. Briefly describe tissue changes that occur with age.

Lecture Outline I. Preparing Human Tissue for Microscopy (pp. 114–115) A. Tissue specimens must be fixed (preserved) and sectioned (sliced) thinly enough to allow light transmission. B. Tissue sections must be stained with dyes that bind to different parts of the cell in slightly different ways so that anatomical structures are distinguished from one another.

II. Epithelial Tissue (pp. 115–124; Figs. 4.1–4.6) A. Features of Epithelia (p. 115) 1. An epithelium is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a cavity. 2. Epithelium occurs in the body as covering or lining epithelium, and as glandular epithelium. B. Special Characteristics of Epithelium (pp. 115–116) 1. Composed of closely packed cells with little extracellular material between. 2. Adjacent epithelial cells are bound together by specialized contacts such as desmosomes and tight junctions. 3. Exhibits polarity by having an apical surface (free) and a basal surface (attached). 4. Supported by the underlying connective tissue. 5. Innervated but avascular. 6. Has a high regeneration capacity. C. Classification of Epithelia (pp. 116–121; Figs. 4.1–4.3) 1. Each epithelial tissue is given two names. a. The first name indicates the number of layers present, either simple (one) or stratified (more than one). b. The second name describes the shape of the cells. 2. Simple epithelia are mostly concerned with absorption, secretion, and filtration. a. Simple squamous epithelium is a single layer of fish scale–shaped cells. b. Simple cuboidal epithelium is a single layer of cube-shaped cells forming the smallest ducts of glands and many kidney tubules. c. Simple columnar epithelium is a single layer of column-shaped cells that line the digestive tract. d. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium contains cells of varying heights giving the false impression of the presence of many layers. 3. Stratified epithelia’s main function is protection. a. Stratified squamous epithelium is composed of several layers with the cells on the free surface being squamous shaped and the underlying cells being cuboidal or columnar in shape. b. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is rare, found mostly in the ducts of some of the larger glands. c. Stratified…