Epithelium and Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Essay

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A&P study guide Chapters 6 and 7

1.) Define simple squamous: Simple squamous epithelium consists of only one layer of flat, scalelike cells. Because of this, substances can easily diffuse or filter through this type of tissue.

2.) Define pseudo stratified: Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is made up of one layer of cells that appears to be at least several layers (pseudo-, "false"; strata-, "layer"). However, despite their appearance, all cells are attached to the basement membrane. Some are taller and their nuclei rest near the top of the cell. Others are shorter and have nuclei that rest closer to the basement membrane.

3.) Define Transitional: Transitional epithelium is made up of an arrangement of differing cell shapes in a stratified sheet.

4.) Define Simple Cuboidal: Simple cuboidal epithelium is one layer of cuboidal cells resting upon a basement membrane. Many types of glands and their ducts, as well as the tubules of organs such as the kidney, are lined with this type of epithelium.

5.) Define Stratified Squamous:(Epidermis) Stratified squamous epithelium is characterized by multiple layers of cells with typical scalelike squamous cells at the outer surface of the epithelial sheet. This type of epithelium is best exemplified by skin tissue, which has a special hard protein called keratin in its cells.

6.) Define Simple Columnar: Simple columnar epithelium forms the surface of the mucous membrane that lines the stomach, intestine, uterus, uterine tubes, and trahcea.

7.) What is the function of sebaceous glands? Secrete oil for the lubrication and maintenance of the hair and skin. Wherever there is hair, there are sebaceous glands- at least two for each hair.

8.) What causes jaundice? Jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the skin and other tissues, such as the "white" or sclera of the eye, can be caused by bile pigments. Jaundice also often occurs just after birth. Ultraviolet light is used to break down bile pigments in the skins and can help speed recovery in infants with moderate to severe cases of jaundice.

9.) What causes cyanosis? In some abnormal conditions, skin color changes because of an excess amount of hemoglobin that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. For this reason, skin with relatively little melanin will appear bluish (cyanotic) when its blood has a high proportion of in oxygenated hemoglobin. The blue coloration results when hemoglobin changes from a bright red to a dark, maroon-red color when it loses oxygen and gains carbon dioxide.

10.) What is sebum and What does it do? Sebum is the oil that keeps the hair supple and the skin soft and pliant. It also prevents excessive water loss and dehydration of the skin. Sebum lubricates and conditions the hair and surrounding skin, keeping it from becoming dry, brittle, and easily damaged.

11.) Define the integumentary system: The integumentary system is the skin and its appendages (including hair, nails, and glands)--is one of the most vital, diverse, complex, and extensive organs of your body.

12.) What are the appendages of the integumentary system? Hair, Nails, and Glands

13.) What are the causes of burns? Burns are thermal injuries or lesions caused by contact of the skin with fire or a hot object, even water. However, overexposure to UV light can cause serious sunburns. Corrosive chemicals and electric currents can also cause burns.

14.) What is ceruminous and what part of the body is it found? Ceruminous glands are a special type of apocrine sweat gland that appear in the external ear canal.

15.) What are the functions of surface film on the skin? These layers protect underlying tissues against invasion by microorganisms. These epithelial cells bar the entry of many harmful, chemicals, and reduce the possibility of mechanical injury to underlying structures. Because it is essentially waterproof, the skin protects us from dehydration caused by the loss of internal body fluids. The skin…