Erikson ' s Stages of Psychosocial Development and Motor Skills Essay

Submitted By Chaimyehuda1
Words: 1441
Pages: 6

1) Classical conditioning- conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus (as the sound of a bell) is paired with and precedes the unconditioned stimulus (as the sight of food) until the conditioned stimulus alone is sufficient to elicit the response (as salivation in a dog)
a) Normal stimulus-normal response like dog was shown food so it starts to salivate.
B) Normal stimulus + conditional stimulus-normal response (salivate)
c) Conditional stimulus is normal response.
2) Operant conditioning-conditioning in which the desired behavior or increasingly closer approximations to it are followed by a rewarding or reinforcing stimulus Based on reinforcement (+ or -).
Use social reinforcement (+or -) for example smile or ignore someone. Give prizes to kids when they do good or desired behavior. If you control environment you can get the person to like or do certain things. Skinner box-if you put a kid in a box you can raise them in a certain way.
3) Dominant gene- gene that produces the same phenotype in the organism whether or not its allele identical; "the dominant gene for brown eyes"
4) Recessive gene- gene that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical; "the recessive gene for blue eyes"
5) Fine motor skills- Fine motor skills involve the small muscles of the body that enable such functions as writing, grasping small objects, and fastening clothing. They involve strength, fine motor control, and dexterity.
6) Gross motor skills- Gross motor skills involve the large muscles of the body that enable such functions as walking, kicking, sitting upright, lifting, and throwing a ball. A person's gross motor skills depend on both muscle tone and strength. Low muscle tone, is a characteristic of several disabling conditions such as Down syndrome, genetic or muscle disorders, or central nervous system disorders.
7) Reflex- Involuntary reaction to a stimulus.
A. Rooting- baby looks at u because wants to eat.
B. sucking- baby sucks on anything.
C. grasping- baby grasps on anything.
D. can adjust to temperatures changes (cross arms if cold).
E. crying- I need something.
8) Egocentrism- looking at the world from my point of view ex- my world my car my house everything is for me. highly present in children
9) Scaffolding- continue learning 1 level at a time-need a base, * learn by use of mentor or by experience
10) Mentoring- To advise or train (someone). A wise and trusted guide and advisor, Serve as a teacher or trusted counselor
11) Zone of proximal development (Zpd) - The difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. It goes from known to the unknown, shouldn’t be too hard for a kid
12) Developmental millstone- it is the Child development stages describe where the child should be physically at a certain stage- crucial moments-muscular movements EX: 2-3 months they lift head at 90 degree from stomach. 3.5-4.5 month’s rollover. 3-4 head up sometimes with support, 5.5-7.5-all back muscle should be developed. 6-10-stand up with help back and leg muscles. 12-14 walk 20-24 months kick a ball etc...
13) Bonding- The emotional and physical attachment occurring between a parent or parent figure, especially a mother, and children, that usually begins at birth and is the basis for further emotional affiliation.
Put baby on your chest to listen to your heartbeat. Flesh to flesh; let baby feel you and smell you. Look at them take care of them. Bonding starts when babies born and never ends. You will always have that connection. Breastfeeding is a good example of bonding.
14) Secure attachment- is an emotional bond between children and caregivers how sure the child is that mom and dad will be there for you.
Kid is sure and trusts parents. If they say, something they will keep it and be there for me.
15) Insecure attachment- Kid is not sure or does not trust. There are 3 types of