ERM Exam 1 Review Essay

Submitted By mmc93
Words: 1157
Pages: 5

EXAM #1 REVIEW

The Scientific Method (steps)
1) Start with an interesting question
a. “Big Q”
2) Propose an informal hypothesis (H) or research question (RQ)
a. Informal =uneducated
b. Previous research suggests…
3) Formalize the H/RQ
a. Retesting previous research
i. Mainly retesting/ not testing new things
4) Conduct the observation measurement, or experiment
a. Measurement = “Quantitative”
b. Experiment = “Quantitative”
5) Analyze & Interpret the data
a. Analyze = Answers (what)
b. Interpret = Explanation (why)
Empirical research
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Quantitative vs. Qualitative research (essential differences)
Qualitative:
Observation of participants in a natural setting
Researcher collects data personally
Five different data collection methods
Often interact with participants
Relatively small sample
Higher quality of data (more detail)
Creating assumptions
Quantitative
Numerical measurement in a controlled setting (experimentation)
Numerical data SURVEYS
Participants self-report data
Collect data in a controlled environment
Relatively large sample
Higher quantity of data (numbers)
Testing assumptions
Replicable
The value of repetition?
“self-correcting”
Heuristic
Answers  more questions
“suggestions for future research”
Generalizability
Extending conclusions from the sample data to the larger population
Ability to generalize data for larger group
Sample  data  conclusions  General population
“In general…” not the same as “studies suggest”
Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning
Inductive: Gather specific data  conclusions (theorize)
Deductive: Advance a theory (H/RQ)  gather data
Is it true?
Is there more?
Purpose Statement
Goal? Value?
Conceptual Definition
The specific way each variable (Quantitative) or phenomenon (Qualitative) is define for YOUR study
Recognize computerized databases for locating research
Theory & its role in research
Attempt to explain, describe, or predict
WHAT we do (pattern)
HOW we do it (specific behavior)
WHY we do it (motivation) ***
IMPROVEMENT
Role in Research:
Qualitative research  create theory
Quantitative research  test theory
“confirm” it, or “contradict” it
Use existing theory  interpret findings
Why does it happen?
4 Primary sections of a Quantitative report & what information is each section
1) Literature Review (Past)
Introductory Paragraphs
Conceptual Definition(s)
How each variable is defined for this study
Original creation or taken from previous studies
Previous research suggests…
APA citations
2) Methods Section (How)
a. Description of participants
i. Sample size (n=203)
b. Demographic information
i. Geographic generalities
c. Sampling technique(s) used
d. The procedure
i. What did the participants do? ii. How was the data collected?
e. “Operationalization” of each variable
i. surveys used ii. Stimulus provided?
f. Descriptive statistics
i. Mean, median, mode ii. Survey reliability
g. “Manipulation Check” Data
i. Only if a stimulus was given
3) Results Section (What)
a. For each H/RQ”
i. Statistical test used
1. R, R, R2, t, F (**Unit2) ii. Numerical results of statistical test
1. [F(1,161) 229.4, p <= .05]  Experimental
2. (r = -.41, p <= .01)  Correlational iii. If H/RQ was supported or rejected
4) Discussion Section (Why)
a. Researcher’s interpretation
i. Restate results (what) ii. Explain results (why) iii. Current findings = previous research iv. Limitations
v. Suggestions for future research
Error
Unplanned mistakes
Participants AND researchers
Faulty (skewed) data
Faulty data  faulty conclusions
Cannot be eliminated
Sources of Error
Previous Research
Your H/RQ
Surveys
“Reliability”
Researcher influence
Stimulus
Sampling error
Data entry
Data analysis
Participants?
“Social Desirability Bias”
“Hawthorne Effect”
Mistakes on surveys
Hypothesis vs. Research Question (differences, purpose, why each is used, etc.)
Research question is what you want to find out
Hypothesis is an untested answer to your research question
Directional
Predicts the specific…