Medulla- the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Reticular formation- a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Thalamus-large egg-shaped structures of gray matter that form the dorsal subdivision of the diencephalon
Cerebellum- the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Amygdala-an almond-shaped group of neurons located deep in the temporal lobe that is involved in processing memories and emotional reactions; can cause experiences to have emotional overtones
Hypothalamus-a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
Spinal Cord-long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). The spinal cord begins at the occipital bone and extends down to the space between the first and second lumbar vertebrae; it does not extend the entire length of the vertebral column. The spinal cord has three major functions: as a conduit for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord, as a conduit for sensory information in the reverse direction, and finally as a center for coordinating certain reflexes
Hippocampus-The hippocampus is a horseshoe shaped paired structure, with one hippocampus located in the left brain hemisphere and the other in the right hemisphere. It is a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
Wernicke’s area-controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression - usually in the left temporal lobe.
Parietal lobe-the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear - receives sensory input for touch and body position.
Frontal lobe- the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behid the forehead - involved in speaking and muscle movements and in amking plans and judgments.
Auditory cortex- It is that region of the brain which dispenses sound and is responsible for the ability to hear.
Motor cortex- is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
The motor cortex can be divided into several main parts: the primary motor cortex is the main contributor to generating neural impulses that pass down to the spinal cord and control the execution of movement. However, some of the other motor cortical fields also play a role in this function. the premotor cortex is responsible for some aspects of motor control, possibly including the preparation for movement, the sensory guidance of movement, the spatial guidance of reaching, or the direct control of some movements with an emphasis on control of proximal and trunk muscles of the body. the supplementary motor area (or