Module Title: Skills for Study (Unit1)
Assessment Title: Essay
Assignment Title: What are the factors which contribute to low health expectancy in developing countries? Discuss possible solutions to reduce this problem.
Tutor Name: Andrew NummeyStudent ID Number: 201040290
Date of Submission: 27/10/14
Word count: 494
Nowadays, in comparison to developed countries, the health expectancy situation in poorer countries is far from optimistic. But what is health expectancy, exactly? Fletcher and Matthews (2011) defined health expectancy as “the percentage of lifespan that an individual is expected to remain free from serious disability or disease which limits their ability to perform physical or social function independently”. There are several significant determinants of health expectancy, such as smoking and education level (Májer, 2012). This essay will analyze these factors of causing this worrying phenomenon in developing countries and provide possible solutions to improve the situation through following paragraphs.
In terms of smoking, it is well known that personal health will suffer risks by smoking tobaccos. A recent study, which focused on the relation between smoking and health expectancy, suggested that non-smokers have the longest health expectancy among those who are light, moderate, and heavy smokers (Ferrucci, Izmirlian and Leveille, et al, 1999). Another study from Netherlands also showed that giving up smoking could extend the length of health expectancy (Nusselder, Looman and Mheen, et al, 2000).
Consequently and apparently, in order to heighten the health expectancy of people in developing countries, lowering the chance of smoking should be one of the primary concerns for the governments. One possible way of reducing smoking is increasing cigarette excise taxes (Lewit & Coate, 1982), which was proved to be effective. Another potential solution is workplace smoking bans (Evans, Farrelly and Montgomery, 1999), which explained the rapid fall of smoking from 1991 to 1993 in America.
Referring to education level, Saito and Crimminsa (2001) pointed out that “people with more education … live longer and experience fewer adverse health events”. By analyzing datas collected from Canada, Wolfson (1996) also found that there is positive correlation between healthy life expectancy and educational attainment. So as to ameliorate their own national educational condition, governments of developing countries need some detailed directions. Encouraging schools to use more information and communication technologies is worth considering. According to Flecknoe (2002), “This new use enables students to show teachers how to improve teaching and, in doing this, it enables students to have more informed and more profitable access to teachers' knowledge and skills.” Additionally, teachers are also enabled to implement administrative assignments more efficiently. Meanwhile, school enrollment rate is another factor they need to focus on. There are about 80% children born and living in developing countries, “but many children still leave school at a young age and often learn little while in school.” (Glewwe & Kremer, 2006) Therefore, it is essential to provide more opportunities for children to become educated by building more schools and decreasing the fee they need to pay for study.
In conclusion, in my opinion, we can