Essay On Hbv Transmission

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Mode of Transmission:
HBV is transmitted by percutaneous and mucosal exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. The highest concentrations of virus are found in blood; however, only semen and saliva have been demonstrated to be infectious. HBV remains viable and infectious in the environment for at least 7 days and can be present in high concentrations on inanimate objects, even in the absence of visible blood (Cindy et al., 2008).
Persons with chronic HBV infection are the major source of new infections, and the primary routes of HBV transmission are sexual contact, percutaneous exposure to infectious body fluids (such as occurs through needle sharing by injecting drug users (IDUs) or needle stick injuries in health-care settings), perinatal exposure to an infected mother, and prolonged, close personal contact with an infected person (e.g., via contact with exudates from dermatologic lesions, contact with contaminated surfaces, or sharing toothbrushes or razors), as occurs in
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Hepatitis is transmitted mainly by parenteral and sexual routes (Khan & Attaullah, 2011). Blood and blood products remain a major cause of spread of the infection among Arab countries, and most of the countries have so far failed to implement fully the criteria recommended for modern, sterile, blood transfusion systems (El-Faramawy et al., 2012). In Arab countries, blood transfusion remains a problem because of the lack of organised infrastructure and qualified staff. The patient’s relatives and friends remain the main source of blood donations and they usually donate blood after social pressure and because of the fear of the death of the patient, who is a relative. Donors usually come forward in an emergency situation, and questions about high-risk behaviours are seldom asked (Al-Hawsawi,